Complementary imaging modalities provide more information than either method alone can yield and we have developed a dual-mode imaging probe for combined magnetic resonance (MR) and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. We have developed dual-mode PET/MRI active probes targeted to vascular inflammation and present synthesis of (1) an aliphatic amine polystyrene bead and (2) a novel superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle targeted to macrophages that were both coupled to positron-emitting copper-64 isotopes. The amine groups of the polystyrene beads were directly conjugated with an amine-reactive form (isothiocyanate) of aza-macrocycle 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclo- dodecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). Iron oxide nanoparticles are dextran sulfate coated, and the surface was modified to contain aldehyde groups to conjugate to an amine-activated DOTA. Incorporation of chelated Cu-64 to nanoparticles under these conditions, which is routinely used to couple DOTA to macromolecules, was unexpectedly difficult and illustrates that traditional conjugation methods do not always work in a nanoparticle environment. Therefore, we developed new methods to couple Cu-64 to nanoparticles and demonstrate successful labeling to a range of nanoparticle types. We obtained labeling yields of 24% for the amine polystyrene beads and 21% radiolabeling yield for the anionic dextran sulfate iron oxide nanoparticles. The new coupling chemistry can be generalized for attaching chelated metals to other nanoparticle platforms.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Organic Chemistry
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)