Synthesis of haptens and protein conjugates for the development of immunoassays for the insect growth regulator fenoxycarb

F. Szurdoki, A. Szekacs, H. M. Le, B. D. Hammock

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36 Scopus citations


Sensitive and selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in the immobilized antigen format were developed for fenoxycarb (1), an insect growth regulator (IGR). The parent molecule [ethyl 2-(4-phenoxyphenoxy)ethylcarbamate] was derivatized at several positions to obtain haptens (2-5) that were used to produce protein conjugates and rabbit polyclonal antisera. Amino derivatives of fenoxycarb at the terminal and internal rings (2 and 3, respectively) were linked to carrier proteins by azo coupling. Carboxyalkyl-spacer groups were attached to the ethyl group and the nitrogen atom of the target compound (1) to obtain haptens 4 and 5, respectively. Hapten-homologous ELISAs based on protein conjugates of compounds 2 and 4 determined fenoxycarb in the mid-ppb range (IC50, 102 and 95 ppb, respectively). A more sensitive hapten-heterologous ELISA (IC50, 17 ppb; detection limit 0.5 ppb) involved the antiserum raised against a conjugate of hapten 2 and the plate-coating antigen obtained from compound 3. These assays displayed no significant interferences with photodegradation products of fenoxycarb, the IGRs methoprene and pyriproxyfen, and a variety of pesticides including the pyrethroids fenvalerate and cypermethryn, the phenoxyacetic acid herbicide 2,4-D, DDT, and the nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides acifluorfen and fluorodifen.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)29-40
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2002


  • Fenoxycarb
  • Hapten design
  • Heterology
  • Immunoassay
  • Polyclonal antibodies
  • Synthesis of haptens and protein conjugates

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)


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