Synovial fluid growth factor and cytokine concentrations after intra-articular injection of a platelet-rich product in horses

Jamie A. Textor, Neil H. Willits, Fern Tablin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) products may be useful for treatment of joint disease in horses, but may contain undesirable pro-inflammatory cytokines in addition to growth factors. This study investigated whether autologous PRP increases synovial fluid growth factor and cytokine concentrations when injected into normal equine metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal (fetlock) joints. Fetlock joints of seven healthy horses received one of four treatments: saline, resting PRP, CaCl2-activated PRP or thrombin-activated PRP. Synovial fluid was sampled prior to injection and at 6, 24, 48 and 96h post-injection. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB), transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) concentrations in synovial fluid and PRP were measured by ELISA. Synovial fluid PDGF-BB, TGFβ1, IL-6, TNFα and IL-1 concentrations were also measured in vitro after incubation for 6h with resting PRP only. Growth factor concentrations, but not cytokine concentrations, were significantly higher in activated PRP than in resting PRP samples. After intra-articular injection with resting or thrombin-activated PRP, synovial TGFβ1 increased significantly compared to baseline levels. TNFα and IL-6 were significantly increased in synovial fluid after thrombin-activated PRP injection. In vitro, growth factor concentrations increased significantly in synovial fluid after mixing with PRP, indicating that exogenous activation of PRP for intra-articular injection may be unnecessary, whereas cytokine levels did not. In conclusion, thrombin-activated PRP induced an inflammatory cytokine response in joints, whereas resting or CaCl2-activated PRP did not. Synovial growth factor levels were low overall; the reported benefits of intra-articular PRP may not be attributable to changes in local PDGF or TGFβ1 concentrations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)217-223
Number of pages7
JournalVeterinary Journal
Volume198
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2013

Fingerprint

Intra-Articular Injections
synovial fluid
Platelet-Rich Plasma
Synovial Fluid
growth factors
Horses
transforming growth factors
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
cytokines
Blood Platelets
thrombin
Cytokines
injection
horses
tumor necrosis factors
joints (animal)
interleukin-6
Transforming Growth Factors
Thrombin
platelet activation

Keywords

  • Cytokines
  • Equine
  • Growth factors
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Platelet-rich plasma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Synovial fluid growth factor and cytokine concentrations after intra-articular injection of a platelet-rich product in horses. / Textor, Jamie A.; Willits, Neil H.; Tablin, Fern.

In: Veterinary Journal, Vol. 198, No. 1, 10.2013, p. 217-223.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) products may be useful for treatment of joint disease in horses, but may contain undesirable pro-inflammatory cytokines in addition to growth factors. This study investigated whether autologous PRP increases synovial fluid growth factor and cytokine concentrations when injected into normal equine metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal (fetlock) joints. Fetlock joints of seven healthy horses received one of four treatments: saline, resting PRP, CaCl2-activated PRP or thrombin-activated PRP. Synovial fluid was sampled prior to injection and at 6, 24, 48 and 96h post-injection. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB), transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) concentrations in synovial fluid and PRP were measured by ELISA. Synovial fluid PDGF-BB, TGFβ1, IL-6, TNFα and IL-1 concentrations were also measured in vitro after incubation for 6h with resting PRP only. Growth factor concentrations, but not cytokine concentrations, were significantly higher in activated PRP than in resting PRP samples. After intra-articular injection with resting or thrombin-activated PRP, synovial TGFβ1 increased significantly compared to baseline levels. TNFα and IL-6 were significantly increased in synovial fluid after thrombin-activated PRP injection. In vitro, growth factor concentrations increased significantly in synovial fluid after mixing with PRP, indicating that exogenous activation of PRP for intra-articular injection may be unnecessary, whereas cytokine levels did not. In conclusion, thrombin-activated PRP induced an inflammatory cytokine response in joints, whereas resting or CaCl2-activated PRP did not. Synovial growth factor levels were low overall; the reported benefits of intra-articular PRP may not be attributable to changes in local PDGF or TGFβ1 concentrations.",
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