Introduction Synchronous gynecologic primary cancers are uncommon. When present, the most frequent malignancies consist of endometrial and ovarian carcinomas. Here we report an exceedingly rare case of concurrent uterine adenocarcinoma and leiomyosarcoma. Case presentation A 60 year-old female presented with four years of postmenopausal bleeding. An endometrial sampling showed grade 2 endometrioid adenocarcinoma. She proceeded with hysterectomy that contained an anterior endometrial mass and a posterior myometrial mass. The final pathology demonstrated concurrent uterine adenocarcinoma and leiomyosarcoma. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this is the third reported case of simultaneous uterine adenocarcinoma and leiomyosarcoma. As this presentation is infrequent with limited literature, this caused a clinical management conundrum. Unfortunately, the follow-up PET scan suggested possible recurrence or metastasis three months after the surgery. Conclusion Simultaneous uterine adenocarcinoma and leiomyosarcoma is an exceptionally rare event. As the experience is limited, a multidisciplinary approach in managing these patients may be the best option currently available.
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