Rationale: Sympathetic stimulation of the heart increases the force of contraction and rate of ventricular relaxation by triggering protein kinase (PK)A-dependent phosphorylation of proteins that regulate intracellular calcium. We hypothesized that scaffolding of cAMP signaling complexes by AKAP5 is required for efficient sympathetic stimulation of calcium transients. Objective: We examined the function of AKAP5 in the β-adrenergic signaling cascade. Methods and results: We used calcium imaging and electrophysiology to examine the sympathetic response of cardiomyocytes isolated from wild type and AKAP5 mutant animals. The β-adrenergic regulation of calcium transients and the phosphorylation of substrates involved in calcium handling were disrupted in AKAP5 knockout cardiomyocytes. The scaffolding protein, AKAP5 (also called AKAP150/79), targets adenylyl cyclase, PKA, and calcineurin to a caveolin 3-associated complex in ventricular myocytes that also binds a unique subpopulation of Cav1.2 L-type calcium channels. Only the caveolin 3-associated Cav1.2 channels are phosphorylated by PKA in response to sympathetic stimulation in wild-type heart. However, in the AKAP5 knockout heart, the organization of this signaling complex is disrupted, adenylyl cyclase 5/6 no longer associates with caveolin 3 in the T-tubules, and noncaveolin 3-associated calcium channels become phosphorylated after β-adrenergic stimulation, although this does not lead to an enhanced calcium transient. The signaling domain created by AKAP5 is also essential for the PKA-dependent phosphorylation of ryanodine receptors and phospholamban. Conclusions: These findings identify an AKAP5-organized signaling module that is associated with caveolin 3 and is essential for sympathetic stimulation of the calcium transient in adult heart cells.
- adenylyl cyclase
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine