While immunotoxicology evaluations are often conducted in either rodents or non-human primates, findings in standard toxicology studies may trigger additional investigations in dogs. A survey sponsored by the HESI Immunotoxicology Technical Committee, and described herein, was conducted to gather information regarding the extent and nature of immunology and immunotoxicity assessments available in the dog, and the need thereof. The survey was issued via e-mail to scientists affiliated with 39 organizations in industry and academia, including contract research organizations, academic research organizations, pharmaceutical companies, and veterinary practices. Fifteen institutions responded, including 10 biotechnology or pharmaceutical industry organizations, 4 contract research organizations, and 1 academic institution. Responses indicated that indeed, immunological assessments in dogs are necessary for research and/or toxicology purposes. The survey demonstrated that multiple types of assays are used in the dog model, including assessment of T-cell-dependent antibody responses, immunoglobulins, complement CH50, cytokines and cytokine mRNAs, lymphocyte proliferation in response to T-cell mitogens, neutrophil activation, phagocytosis, and immunophenotyping of several cell types. The survey also revealed that certain assays/endpoints are not available in the dog (complement components, NK immunophenotyping, T-cell activation and memory immunophenotyping) or require further optimization (ex vivo cytolysis assays such as CTL and NK function, B-cell proliferation in response to LPS). In addition, the survey indicated that a greater understanding of the specificity of the available immunophenotyping reagents is needed.
- T-cell independent antibody response
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