Survey for equine herpesviruses in polar bears (URSUS maritimus) and exotic equids housed in us AZA institutions

John A. Flanders, Raymund F. Wack, Nicola Pusterla, Samantha M. Mapes, Darin Collins, Kathryn C. Gamble

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Infection by equine herpesvirus (EHV) strains (EHV-1, EHV-9) in ursid species, including polar bears (Ursus maritimus), has been associated with neurological disease and death. A serosurvey of captive exotic equid and polar bear populations in US Association of Zoos and Aquaria institutions was performed to determine the prevalence of EHV strains using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. Equid species surveyed included zebra (Equus spp.), Przewalski's wild horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), Persian onager (Equus hemionus), and Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somaliensis). A questionnaire regarding husbandry and medical variables was distributed to institutions housing polar bears. No polar bears tested positive for EHVs on qPCR of blood or nasal swabs. No exotic equids tested positive for EHVs on qPCR of blood, but two exotic equids (n = 2/22; 9%) tested positive for EHVs on qPCR of nasal swabs. On ELISA, polar bears infrequently were positive for EHV-1 (n = 5/38; 13%). Exotic equids were positive for EHV-4 on ELISA more frequently (n = 30/43; 70%) than for EHV-1 (n = 8/43; 19%). Nine institutions submitted samples from both exotic equids and polar bears, two of which had both exotic equids and polar bears positive for EHVs by ELISA. Each of these institutions reported that the polar bear and exotic equid exhibits were within 80 m of each other and that risk factors for fomite transmission between exhibits based on husbandry practices were present. One institution that did not house exotic equids had a polar bear test positive for EHV-1 on ELISA, with no history of exposure to exotic equids. Further testing of captive polar bears and exotic equids is recommended, as is modification of husbandry practices to limit exposure of polar bears to exotic equids.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)599-608
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume49
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2018

Fingerprint

Ursidae
Ursus maritimus
Herpesviridae
Horses
horses
Equid Herpesvirus 1
Equid herpesvirus 1
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
quantitative polymerase chain reaction
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Nose
Equid herpesvirus 9
Surveys and Questionnaires
Equid Herpesvirus 4
Fomites
Equus zebra
Equus przewalskii
Equid herpesvirus 4
fomites

Keywords

  • Equid
  • Equine herpesvirus (EHV)
  • Polar bear
  • QPCR
  • Serology
  • Ursus maritimus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Survey for equine herpesviruses in polar bears (URSUS maritimus) and exotic equids housed in us AZA institutions. / Flanders, John A.; Wack, Raymund F.; Pusterla, Nicola; Mapes, Samantha M.; Collins, Darin; Gamble, Kathryn C.

In: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Vol. 49, No. 3, 01.09.2018, p. 599-608.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Flanders, John A. ; Wack, Raymund F. ; Pusterla, Nicola ; Mapes, Samantha M. ; Collins, Darin ; Gamble, Kathryn C. / Survey for equine herpesviruses in polar bears (URSUS maritimus) and exotic equids housed in us AZA institutions. In: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2018 ; Vol. 49, No. 3. pp. 599-608.
@article{09b6b7d82a7d4617877aeae8d4c62d87,
title = "Survey for equine herpesviruses in polar bears (URSUS maritimus) and exotic equids housed in us AZA institutions",
abstract = "Infection by equine herpesvirus (EHV) strains (EHV-1, EHV-9) in ursid species, including polar bears (Ursus maritimus), has been associated with neurological disease and death. A serosurvey of captive exotic equid and polar bear populations in US Association of Zoos and Aquaria institutions was performed to determine the prevalence of EHV strains using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. Equid species surveyed included zebra (Equus spp.), Przewalski's wild horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), Persian onager (Equus hemionus), and Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somaliensis). A questionnaire regarding husbandry and medical variables was distributed to institutions housing polar bears. No polar bears tested positive for EHVs on qPCR of blood or nasal swabs. No exotic equids tested positive for EHVs on qPCR of blood, but two exotic equids (n = 2/22; 9{\%}) tested positive for EHVs on qPCR of nasal swabs. On ELISA, polar bears infrequently were positive for EHV-1 (n = 5/38; 13{\%}). Exotic equids were positive for EHV-4 on ELISA more frequently (n = 30/43; 70{\%}) than for EHV-1 (n = 8/43; 19{\%}). Nine institutions submitted samples from both exotic equids and polar bears, two of which had both exotic equids and polar bears positive for EHVs by ELISA. Each of these institutions reported that the polar bear and exotic equid exhibits were within 80 m of each other and that risk factors for fomite transmission between exhibits based on husbandry practices were present. One institution that did not house exotic equids had a polar bear test positive for EHV-1 on ELISA, with no history of exposure to exotic equids. Further testing of captive polar bears and exotic equids is recommended, as is modification of husbandry practices to limit exposure of polar bears to exotic equids.",
keywords = "Equid, Equine herpesvirus (EHV), Polar bear, QPCR, Serology, Ursus maritimus",
author = "Flanders, {John A.} and Wack, {Raymund F.} and Nicola Pusterla and Mapes, {Samantha M.} and Darin Collins and Gamble, {Kathryn C.}",
year = "2018",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1638/2016-0189.1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "49",
pages = "599--608",
journal = "Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine",
issn = "1042-7260",
publisher = "American Association of Zoo Veterinarians",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Survey for equine herpesviruses in polar bears (URSUS maritimus) and exotic equids housed in us AZA institutions

AU - Flanders, John A.

AU - Wack, Raymund F.

AU - Pusterla, Nicola

AU - Mapes, Samantha M.

AU - Collins, Darin

AU - Gamble, Kathryn C.

PY - 2018/9/1

Y1 - 2018/9/1

N2 - Infection by equine herpesvirus (EHV) strains (EHV-1, EHV-9) in ursid species, including polar bears (Ursus maritimus), has been associated with neurological disease and death. A serosurvey of captive exotic equid and polar bear populations in US Association of Zoos and Aquaria institutions was performed to determine the prevalence of EHV strains using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. Equid species surveyed included zebra (Equus spp.), Przewalski's wild horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), Persian onager (Equus hemionus), and Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somaliensis). A questionnaire regarding husbandry and medical variables was distributed to institutions housing polar bears. No polar bears tested positive for EHVs on qPCR of blood or nasal swabs. No exotic equids tested positive for EHVs on qPCR of blood, but two exotic equids (n = 2/22; 9%) tested positive for EHVs on qPCR of nasal swabs. On ELISA, polar bears infrequently were positive for EHV-1 (n = 5/38; 13%). Exotic equids were positive for EHV-4 on ELISA more frequently (n = 30/43; 70%) than for EHV-1 (n = 8/43; 19%). Nine institutions submitted samples from both exotic equids and polar bears, two of which had both exotic equids and polar bears positive for EHVs by ELISA. Each of these institutions reported that the polar bear and exotic equid exhibits were within 80 m of each other and that risk factors for fomite transmission between exhibits based on husbandry practices were present. One institution that did not house exotic equids had a polar bear test positive for EHV-1 on ELISA, with no history of exposure to exotic equids. Further testing of captive polar bears and exotic equids is recommended, as is modification of husbandry practices to limit exposure of polar bears to exotic equids.

AB - Infection by equine herpesvirus (EHV) strains (EHV-1, EHV-9) in ursid species, including polar bears (Ursus maritimus), has been associated with neurological disease and death. A serosurvey of captive exotic equid and polar bear populations in US Association of Zoos and Aquaria institutions was performed to determine the prevalence of EHV strains using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. Equid species surveyed included zebra (Equus spp.), Przewalski's wild horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), Persian onager (Equus hemionus), and Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somaliensis). A questionnaire regarding husbandry and medical variables was distributed to institutions housing polar bears. No polar bears tested positive for EHVs on qPCR of blood or nasal swabs. No exotic equids tested positive for EHVs on qPCR of blood, but two exotic equids (n = 2/22; 9%) tested positive for EHVs on qPCR of nasal swabs. On ELISA, polar bears infrequently were positive for EHV-1 (n = 5/38; 13%). Exotic equids were positive for EHV-4 on ELISA more frequently (n = 30/43; 70%) than for EHV-1 (n = 8/43; 19%). Nine institutions submitted samples from both exotic equids and polar bears, two of which had both exotic equids and polar bears positive for EHVs by ELISA. Each of these institutions reported that the polar bear and exotic equid exhibits were within 80 m of each other and that risk factors for fomite transmission between exhibits based on husbandry practices were present. One institution that did not house exotic equids had a polar bear test positive for EHV-1 on ELISA, with no history of exposure to exotic equids. Further testing of captive polar bears and exotic equids is recommended, as is modification of husbandry practices to limit exposure of polar bears to exotic equids.

KW - Equid

KW - Equine herpesvirus (EHV)

KW - Polar bear

KW - QPCR

KW - Serology

KW - Ursus maritimus

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85053439836&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85053439836&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1638/2016-0189.1

DO - 10.1638/2016-0189.1

M3 - Article

C2 - 30212313

AN - SCOPUS:85053439836

VL - 49

SP - 599

EP - 608

JO - Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine

JF - Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine

SN - 1042-7260

IS - 3

ER -