Surveillance of Salmonella Enteritidis in layer houses: A retrospective comparison of the food and drug administration's egg safety rule (2010-2011) and the California egg quality assurance program (2007-2011)

Maurice Pitesky, Bruce Charlton, Mark Bland, Dan Rolfe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Scopus citations


Between July 2007 and December 2011, 2660 environmental drag swab samples were collected in total from California layer flocks on behalf of the California Egg Quality Assurance Program (CEQAP), the egg safety rule (21 CFR Parts 16 and 118) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), or both. The samples were processed by the California Animal Health and Food Safety Lab, and positive or negative results for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) were recorded. This study retrospectively compares the differences between the FDA and CEQAP programs with respect to their SE environmental sampling surveillance results. To accomplish this comparison, two different CEQAP (new and old) data sets representing different SE environmental surveillance approaches in the life of the flock were compared against each other and against the FDA's SE environmental testing plan. Significant differences were noted between the CEQAP and FDA programs with respect to the prevalence of SE in the farm environment. Analyses of the prevalence of SE at different stages in the flock's life cycle (chick papers, preproduction, midproduction, postmolt, and premarket) found the highest prevalence of SE in premarket (11.9%), followed by postmolt (3.5%) and midproduction (3.4%), and there was a tie between chick papers and preproduction (2.1%). To assess the main effects of the presence of SE in the farm environment, backwards binary logistic regression was used. Of six independent variables examined (age of flock, year, season, owner, CEQAP membership, and analysis of pooled samples vs.. individual swabs), only age of flock, owner, and year were determined to be significant factors in the final model. Although CEQAP membership and pooling vs. individuals swabs were not included in the final model, Pearson chi-square tests did show significantly higher odds of SE for non-CEQAP member farms and higher odds of SE in pooled samples vs.. individual swabs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)51-56
Number of pages6
JournalAvian Diseases
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2013



  • (CFR Parts 16 and 118)
  • California Egg Quality Assurance Program
  • Environmental sampling for Salmonella Enteritidis
  • Food and Drug Administration's Egg Safety Rule
  • Salmonella Enteritidis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Food Animals
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)

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