The normal musculoskeletal structure of the upper body functions primarily in respiration but also protects the vital organs of the thoracic cavity and supports movement of the upper extremities. The thorax is comprised of the sternum, ribs, clavicles, scapula, vertebra, various muscles, and neurovascular structures. There are a plethora of developmental anomalies that affect the various components of the thorax. In this chapter, we will cover the typical presentation of the thorax along with commonly seen variants.
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