Sulfur mustard

Its continuing threat as a chemical warfare agent, the cutaneous lesions induced, progress in understanding its mechanism of action, its long-term health effects, and new developments for protection and therapy

Kathleen J. Smith, Charles G. Hurst, Robert B. Moeller, Henry G. Skelton, Frederick R. Sidell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

123 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Although sulfur mustard (SM) has been used as a chemical warfare agent since the early twentieth century, it has reemerged in the past decade as a major threat around the world. SM is an agent that is easily produced even in underdeveloped countries and for which there is no effective therapy. This agent is a potential threat not only on the battlefield but also to civilian populations. The skin and other epithelial surfaces are the first targets as this agent is absorbed, and reactions within the skin are the subject of active research into the mechanism of action of this alkylating agent. The depletion of glutathione, generation of reactive oxygen species, and the formation of stable DNA adducts remain theoretic and demonstrated by-products of SM exposure implicated in the disease produced. However, new findings related to the effects of SM on the basement membrane zone; interest in delayed healing of the lesions induced; the inflammatory mediators, enzymes, and cytokines that result; and cellular typing of the inflammatory infiltrate will increase our understanding of the pathophysiology of the lesions caused by SM. In addition, the recent development of a topical skin protectant for SM and for other chemical warfare agents may have broad applications within dermatology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)765-776
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Volume32
Issue number5 PART 1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Chemical Warfare Agents
Mustard Gas
Skin
Health
Therapeutics
DNA Adducts
Alkylating Agents
Dermatology
Basement Membrane
Glutathione
Reactive Oxygen Species
Cytokines
Enzymes
Research
Population

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology

Cite this

Sulfur mustard : Its continuing threat as a chemical warfare agent, the cutaneous lesions induced, progress in understanding its mechanism of action, its long-term health effects, and new developments for protection and therapy. / Smith, Kathleen J.; Hurst, Charles G.; Moeller, Robert B.; Skelton, Henry G.; Sidell, Frederick R.

In: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Vol. 32, No. 5 PART 1, 1995, p. 765-776.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{5c4d482c33854a2c85711932f93116ac,
title = "Sulfur mustard: Its continuing threat as a chemical warfare agent, the cutaneous lesions induced, progress in understanding its mechanism of action, its long-term health effects, and new developments for protection and therapy",
abstract = "Although sulfur mustard (SM) has been used as a chemical warfare agent since the early twentieth century, it has reemerged in the past decade as a major threat around the world. SM is an agent that is easily produced even in underdeveloped countries and for which there is no effective therapy. This agent is a potential threat not only on the battlefield but also to civilian populations. The skin and other epithelial surfaces are the first targets as this agent is absorbed, and reactions within the skin are the subject of active research into the mechanism of action of this alkylating agent. The depletion of glutathione, generation of reactive oxygen species, and the formation of stable DNA adducts remain theoretic and demonstrated by-products of SM exposure implicated in the disease produced. However, new findings related to the effects of SM on the basement membrane zone; interest in delayed healing of the lesions induced; the inflammatory mediators, enzymes, and cytokines that result; and cellular typing of the inflammatory infiltrate will increase our understanding of the pathophysiology of the lesions caused by SM. In addition, the recent development of a topical skin protectant for SM and for other chemical warfare agents may have broad applications within dermatology.",
author = "Smith, {Kathleen J.} and Hurst, {Charles G.} and Moeller, {Robert B.} and Skelton, {Henry G.} and Sidell, {Frederick R.}",
year = "1995",
doi = "10.1016/0190-9622(95)91457-9",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "32",
pages = "765--776",
journal = "Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology",
issn = "0190-9622",
publisher = "Mosby Inc.",
number = "5 PART 1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sulfur mustard

T2 - Its continuing threat as a chemical warfare agent, the cutaneous lesions induced, progress in understanding its mechanism of action, its long-term health effects, and new developments for protection and therapy

AU - Smith, Kathleen J.

AU - Hurst, Charles G.

AU - Moeller, Robert B.

AU - Skelton, Henry G.

AU - Sidell, Frederick R.

PY - 1995

Y1 - 1995

N2 - Although sulfur mustard (SM) has been used as a chemical warfare agent since the early twentieth century, it has reemerged in the past decade as a major threat around the world. SM is an agent that is easily produced even in underdeveloped countries and for which there is no effective therapy. This agent is a potential threat not only on the battlefield but also to civilian populations. The skin and other epithelial surfaces are the first targets as this agent is absorbed, and reactions within the skin are the subject of active research into the mechanism of action of this alkylating agent. The depletion of glutathione, generation of reactive oxygen species, and the formation of stable DNA adducts remain theoretic and demonstrated by-products of SM exposure implicated in the disease produced. However, new findings related to the effects of SM on the basement membrane zone; interest in delayed healing of the lesions induced; the inflammatory mediators, enzymes, and cytokines that result; and cellular typing of the inflammatory infiltrate will increase our understanding of the pathophysiology of the lesions caused by SM. In addition, the recent development of a topical skin protectant for SM and for other chemical warfare agents may have broad applications within dermatology.

AB - Although sulfur mustard (SM) has been used as a chemical warfare agent since the early twentieth century, it has reemerged in the past decade as a major threat around the world. SM is an agent that is easily produced even in underdeveloped countries and for which there is no effective therapy. This agent is a potential threat not only on the battlefield but also to civilian populations. The skin and other epithelial surfaces are the first targets as this agent is absorbed, and reactions within the skin are the subject of active research into the mechanism of action of this alkylating agent. The depletion of glutathione, generation of reactive oxygen species, and the formation of stable DNA adducts remain theoretic and demonstrated by-products of SM exposure implicated in the disease produced. However, new findings related to the effects of SM on the basement membrane zone; interest in delayed healing of the lesions induced; the inflammatory mediators, enzymes, and cytokines that result; and cellular typing of the inflammatory infiltrate will increase our understanding of the pathophysiology of the lesions caused by SM. In addition, the recent development of a topical skin protectant for SM and for other chemical warfare agents may have broad applications within dermatology.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028905042&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028905042&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/0190-9622(95)91457-9

DO - 10.1016/0190-9622(95)91457-9

M3 - Article

VL - 32

SP - 765

EP - 776

JO - Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology

JF - Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology

SN - 0190-9622

IS - 5 PART 1

ER -