A series of substituted trifluoroketones were tested as inhibitors of mammalian liver microsomal carboxylesterase(s) hydrolyzing a variety of substrates including malathion, diethylsuccinate (DES) and p-nitrophenyl acetate (p-NpAc). The trifluoroketones used were very potent "transition state" inhibitors of crude mouse and human liver microsomal carboxylesterases as well as commercial porcine liver carboxylesterase (Sigma EC 184.108.40.206 Type I). These enzymes were found to differ in their sensitivity to the inhibitors employed, and some compounds caused dramatic activation of the hydrolysis of DES. In some but not all cases, a thioether beta to the carbonyl increased the inhibitory potency of the compound. Structure-activity relationships also were evaluated among aliphatic versus substituted and unsubstituted aromatic trifluoroketones. Kinetic parameters [i.e. Km, Vmax and (T 1 2)e] for the mouse liver microsomes and the porcine carboxylesterase hydrolyzing DES were determined. Apparent high-and low-affinity forms were observed with each preparation. 3-Nonylthio-1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-one was synthesized by the reaction of the corresponding thiol with 3-bromo-1,1,1-trifluoroacetone, and apparent synergism was observed when it was coadministered i.p. with malathion to mice.
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