Submaximal exercise testing using lactate threshold and venous oxygen tension as endpoints in normal dogs and in dogs with heart failure

Mark D Kittleson, Lynne E. Johnson, Paul D. Pion

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Scopus citations

Abstract

Twelve normal dogs and 7 dogs with experimentally induced heart failure were chronically instrumented to measure hemodynamic variables and blood gas tensions at rest and during graded treadmill exercise. Three groups of 4 normal dogs each (group 1, 15 to 20 kg; group 2, 21 to 30 kg; group 3, 31 to 40 kg) were exercised on a treadmill at a 16% grade at 1, 2, and 3 miles per hour, and at a 22% and a 26% grade at 3 miles per hour (5 total exercise levels) until blood lactate concentration increased to a value greater than 1 mmol/L. Blood lactate concentration and blood gas tensions were measured 5 and 15 minutes after starting exercise, and cardiac output was measured between 8 and 10 minutes of exercise. Results indicated that the same exercise protocol could be used for dogs ranging in size from 15 to 40 kg. Blood lactate concentration increased in normal dogs at varying workloads, but always at or above a workload of 3 miles per hour at a 16% grade. Dogs with class IV heart failure always experienced an increase in blood lactate concentration when walked at 1 mile per hour at a 16% grade for 5 minutes. A femoral vein Po 2 between 21 and 24 mm Hg in normal dogs, and between 16 and 22 mm Hg in dogs with heart failure was always associated with an increase in blood lactate concentration. The primary problem with this exercise protocol was the unwillingness of some dogs to walk on the treadmill during the preselection phase. We conclude that we have devised a submaximal exercise test that can be used to evaluate exercise capability in dogs ranging in size from 15 to 40 kg, that the described exercise protocol can be used to identify decreased flow reserve in dogs with class IV heart failure induced by rapid ventricular pacing, and that either femoral vein oxygen tension or blood lactate concentration can be used as the endpoint for submaximal exercise testing in dogs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)21-27
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume10
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1996

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

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