Studies on itraconazole delivery and pharmacokinetics in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

Lisa A Tell, A. L. Craigmill, K. V. Clemons, Y. Sun, S. C. Laizure, A. Clifford, J. H. Ina, J. P. Nugent-Deal, Leslie Woods, D. A. Stevens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Avian aspergillosis is commonly treated with itraconazole (ITZ). This paper describes two studies using mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). The first study evaluated in vivo release of ITZ from subcutaneously injected controlled-release gel formulations and the second study compared pharmacokinetic parameters for two ITZ oral suspensions. ITZ-A suspension was prepared by mixing contents of commercially available capsules with hydrochloric acid and orange juice. ITZ-B suspension was prepared by dispersing the complex of the drug with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in water. Concentrations of ITZ and its active metabolite, hydroxyitraconazole (OH-ITZ), in plasma and tissue samples were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. In the second study, drug concentrations in plasma samples were also analyzed using a bioassay. After administration of two ITZ controlled-release formulations, plasma and tissue concentrations of ITZ and OH-ITZ were either very low (≤52 ng/mL) or undetectable. Exceptions included skin, subcutaneous fat, and muscle adjacent to the injection site. The drug from ITZ-A and ITZ-B suspensions was absorbed after oral administration. ITZ pharmacokinetic parameters for both suspensions in mallard ducks were similar and the bioassay successfully measured ITZ equivalents in plasma samples from ducks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)267-274
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • veterinary(all)


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