Structural displacements in normal swallowing: A videofluoroscopic study

Rebecca J Leonard, Katherine A. Kendall, Sue McKenzie, Maria Inês Gonçalves, Alice Walker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

142 Scopus citations


Dynamic videofluoroscopic swallow studies were performed on 60 normal adult volunteers to establish normative data for displacement of upper aerodigestive tract structures during deglutition. Variables evaluated included hyoid bone displacement, larynx-to-hyoid bone approximation, pharyngeal constriction, and the extent of pharyngoesophageal sphincter (PES) opening during liquid swallows of 1, 3, and 20 cc. Results showed direct relationships between bolus size and hyoid displacement, between bolus size and PES opening, and between bolus size and pharyngeal constriction. Only hyoid-to-larynx approximation remained unchanged across bolus sizes. Sex differences were noted for all variables except PES opening. Reliability for most measurement variables was excellent. To our knowledge, normative data for pharyngeal constriction and larynx-to-hyoid approximation have not previously been described.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)146-152
Number of pages7
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2000


  • Adults
  • Deglutition
  • Deglutition disorders
  • Displacement
  • Normal
  • Structures
  • Swallow

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Gastroenterology


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