Stereotype Efficiency Reconsidered: Encoding Flexibility under Cognitive Load

Jeffrey Sherman, Angela Y. Lee, Gayle R. Bessenoff, Leigh A. Frost

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

161 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

According to the encoding flexibility model, stereotypes are efficient because they facilitate, in different ways, the encoding of both stereotype-consistent and stereotype-inconsistent information when capacity is low. Because stereotypical information is conceptually fluent, it may be easily understood, even when resources are scant. As a result, processing resources may shift from stereotypical toward counterstereotypical information, which is difficult to comprehend under such conditions. Thus, whereas inconsistent information receives greater attention (Experiments 1-3) and perceptual encoding (Experiment 4) when resources are depleted, the conceptual meaning of consistent information is extracted to a greater degree under such conditions (Experiment 5). Potential moderating roles of stereotype strength and perceiver motivations are discussed, as are the implications of these results for dual process models of stereotyping.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)589-606
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Personality and Social Psychology
Volume75
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1998
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Stereotyping
stereotype
Motivation
flexibility
efficiency
experiment
resources

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science

Cite this

Stereotype Efficiency Reconsidered : Encoding Flexibility under Cognitive Load. / Sherman, Jeffrey; Lee, Angela Y.; Bessenoff, Gayle R.; Frost, Leigh A.

In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 75, No. 3, 01.01.1998, p. 589-606.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sherman, Jeffrey ; Lee, Angela Y. ; Bessenoff, Gayle R. ; Frost, Leigh A. / Stereotype Efficiency Reconsidered : Encoding Flexibility under Cognitive Load. In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1998 ; Vol. 75, No. 3. pp. 589-606.
@article{323135b5adaa48a7ac85ea52c08116d3,
title = "Stereotype Efficiency Reconsidered: Encoding Flexibility under Cognitive Load",
abstract = "According to the encoding flexibility model, stereotypes are efficient because they facilitate, in different ways, the encoding of both stereotype-consistent and stereotype-inconsistent information when capacity is low. Because stereotypical information is conceptually fluent, it may be easily understood, even when resources are scant. As a result, processing resources may shift from stereotypical toward counterstereotypical information, which is difficult to comprehend under such conditions. Thus, whereas inconsistent information receives greater attention (Experiments 1-3) and perceptual encoding (Experiment 4) when resources are depleted, the conceptual meaning of consistent information is extracted to a greater degree under such conditions (Experiment 5). Potential moderating roles of stereotype strength and perceiver motivations are discussed, as are the implications of these results for dual process models of stereotyping.",
author = "Jeffrey Sherman and Lee, {Angela Y.} and Bessenoff, {Gayle R.} and Frost, {Leigh A.}",
year = "1998",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1037/0022-3514.75.3.589",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "75",
pages = "589--606",
journal = "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology",
issn = "0022-3514",
publisher = "American Psychological Association Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Stereotype Efficiency Reconsidered

T2 - Encoding Flexibility under Cognitive Load

AU - Sherman, Jeffrey

AU - Lee, Angela Y.

AU - Bessenoff, Gayle R.

AU - Frost, Leigh A.

PY - 1998/1/1

Y1 - 1998/1/1

N2 - According to the encoding flexibility model, stereotypes are efficient because they facilitate, in different ways, the encoding of both stereotype-consistent and stereotype-inconsistent information when capacity is low. Because stereotypical information is conceptually fluent, it may be easily understood, even when resources are scant. As a result, processing resources may shift from stereotypical toward counterstereotypical information, which is difficult to comprehend under such conditions. Thus, whereas inconsistent information receives greater attention (Experiments 1-3) and perceptual encoding (Experiment 4) when resources are depleted, the conceptual meaning of consistent information is extracted to a greater degree under such conditions (Experiment 5). Potential moderating roles of stereotype strength and perceiver motivations are discussed, as are the implications of these results for dual process models of stereotyping.

AB - According to the encoding flexibility model, stereotypes are efficient because they facilitate, in different ways, the encoding of both stereotype-consistent and stereotype-inconsistent information when capacity is low. Because stereotypical information is conceptually fluent, it may be easily understood, even when resources are scant. As a result, processing resources may shift from stereotypical toward counterstereotypical information, which is difficult to comprehend under such conditions. Thus, whereas inconsistent information receives greater attention (Experiments 1-3) and perceptual encoding (Experiment 4) when resources are depleted, the conceptual meaning of consistent information is extracted to a greater degree under such conditions (Experiment 5). Potential moderating roles of stereotype strength and perceiver motivations are discussed, as are the implications of these results for dual process models of stereotyping.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0032159224&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0032159224&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1037/0022-3514.75.3.589

DO - 10.1037/0022-3514.75.3.589

M3 - Article

C2 - 9781404

AN - SCOPUS:0032159224

VL - 75

SP - 589

EP - 606

JO - Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

JF - Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

SN - 0022-3514

IS - 3

ER -