Standardization of the two-dimensional transcoelomic echocardiographic examination in the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

S. Silverman, David Guzman, Joshua A Stern, K. A. Gustavsen, L. G. Griffiths

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: To objectively and subjectively describe the normal spectrum of two-dimensional echocardiographic findings in the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). Animals: Sixteen central bearded dragons. Methods: Central bearded dragons were prospectively evaluated under manual restraint in right and left lateral recumbency to identify imaging planes for reproducible measurements of cardiac chambers, subjective two-dimensional analysis and color Doppler assessment. Results: Echocardiography can be performed through windows in the left and right axillae. The window in the left axilla allows for a subjective and objective assessment of cardiac structure and function. The right axillary window allows for evaluation of pulmonary artery flow. Both views provide data for the presence of pericardial effusion or valvular insufficiency. With optimized imaging planes, cardiac chambers and fractional area change along with fractional shortening in the longitudinal and transverse planes can be calculated. Body weight and cardiac chamber dimensions of males were significantly larger than females. Ventricular fractional area change was the most consistent functional assessment. The majority of animals were found to have no evidence of valvular insufficiency, while approximately half had evidence of pericardial fluid. Pulmonary artery flow was assessed in all patients. Left and right aortic velocities cannot be reliably obtained. Conclusions: This study is the first to generate reference values for cardiac structure and function in clinically healthy central bearded dragons. Valvular insufficiency is not a normal finding in central bearded dragons, while mild pericardial effusion may be.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Veterinary Cardiology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - May 25 2015

Fingerprint

Axilla
Pericardial Effusion
standardization
Pulmonary Artery
pericardial effusion
Echocardiography
Reference Values
Color
pulmonary artery
Body Weight
image analysis
echocardiography
shortenings
normal values
Pogona vitticeps
animals
body weight
color
Pericardial Fluid

Keywords

  • Cardiac ultrasound
  • Echocardiogram
  • Reptile
  • Squamate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)
  • Physiology

Cite this

@article{36883dfd5f1f463e9be50ae4ec095605,
title = "Standardization of the two-dimensional transcoelomic echocardiographic examination in the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)",
abstract = "Objectives: To objectively and subjectively describe the normal spectrum of two-dimensional echocardiographic findings in the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). Animals: Sixteen central bearded dragons. Methods: Central bearded dragons were prospectively evaluated under manual restraint in right and left lateral recumbency to identify imaging planes for reproducible measurements of cardiac chambers, subjective two-dimensional analysis and color Doppler assessment. Results: Echocardiography can be performed through windows in the left and right axillae. The window in the left axilla allows for a subjective and objective assessment of cardiac structure and function. The right axillary window allows for evaluation of pulmonary artery flow. Both views provide data for the presence of pericardial effusion or valvular insufficiency. With optimized imaging planes, cardiac chambers and fractional area change along with fractional shortening in the longitudinal and transverse planes can be calculated. Body weight and cardiac chamber dimensions of males were significantly larger than females. Ventricular fractional area change was the most consistent functional assessment. The majority of animals were found to have no evidence of valvular insufficiency, while approximately half had evidence of pericardial fluid. Pulmonary artery flow was assessed in all patients. Left and right aortic velocities cannot be reliably obtained. Conclusions: This study is the first to generate reference values for cardiac structure and function in clinically healthy central bearded dragons. Valvular insufficiency is not a normal finding in central bearded dragons, while mild pericardial effusion may be.",
keywords = "Cardiac ultrasound, Echocardiogram, Reptile, Squamate",
author = "S. Silverman and David Guzman and Stern, {Joshua A} and Gustavsen, {K. A.} and Griffiths, {L. G.}",
year = "2015",
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doi = "10.1016/j.jvc.2015.10.011",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Journal of Veterinary Cardiology",
issn = "1760-2734",
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T1 - Standardization of the two-dimensional transcoelomic echocardiographic examination in the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

AU - Silverman, S.

AU - Guzman, David

AU - Stern, Joshua A

AU - Gustavsen, K. A.

AU - Griffiths, L. G.

PY - 2015/5/25

Y1 - 2015/5/25

N2 - Objectives: To objectively and subjectively describe the normal spectrum of two-dimensional echocardiographic findings in the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). Animals: Sixteen central bearded dragons. Methods: Central bearded dragons were prospectively evaluated under manual restraint in right and left lateral recumbency to identify imaging planes for reproducible measurements of cardiac chambers, subjective two-dimensional analysis and color Doppler assessment. Results: Echocardiography can be performed through windows in the left and right axillae. The window in the left axilla allows for a subjective and objective assessment of cardiac structure and function. The right axillary window allows for evaluation of pulmonary artery flow. Both views provide data for the presence of pericardial effusion or valvular insufficiency. With optimized imaging planes, cardiac chambers and fractional area change along with fractional shortening in the longitudinal and transverse planes can be calculated. Body weight and cardiac chamber dimensions of males were significantly larger than females. Ventricular fractional area change was the most consistent functional assessment. The majority of animals were found to have no evidence of valvular insufficiency, while approximately half had evidence of pericardial fluid. Pulmonary artery flow was assessed in all patients. Left and right aortic velocities cannot be reliably obtained. Conclusions: This study is the first to generate reference values for cardiac structure and function in clinically healthy central bearded dragons. Valvular insufficiency is not a normal finding in central bearded dragons, while mild pericardial effusion may be.

AB - Objectives: To objectively and subjectively describe the normal spectrum of two-dimensional echocardiographic findings in the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). Animals: Sixteen central bearded dragons. Methods: Central bearded dragons were prospectively evaluated under manual restraint in right and left lateral recumbency to identify imaging planes for reproducible measurements of cardiac chambers, subjective two-dimensional analysis and color Doppler assessment. Results: Echocardiography can be performed through windows in the left and right axillae. The window in the left axilla allows for a subjective and objective assessment of cardiac structure and function. The right axillary window allows for evaluation of pulmonary artery flow. Both views provide data for the presence of pericardial effusion or valvular insufficiency. With optimized imaging planes, cardiac chambers and fractional area change along with fractional shortening in the longitudinal and transverse planes can be calculated. Body weight and cardiac chamber dimensions of males were significantly larger than females. Ventricular fractional area change was the most consistent functional assessment. The majority of animals were found to have no evidence of valvular insufficiency, while approximately half had evidence of pericardial fluid. Pulmonary artery flow was assessed in all patients. Left and right aortic velocities cannot be reliably obtained. Conclusions: This study is the first to generate reference values for cardiac structure and function in clinically healthy central bearded dragons. Valvular insufficiency is not a normal finding in central bearded dragons, while mild pericardial effusion may be.

KW - Cardiac ultrasound

KW - Echocardiogram

KW - Reptile

KW - Squamate

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