Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac in a spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta)

Andrea L. Goodnight, Ryan P. Traslavina, Karen Emanuelson, Verena K Affolter, Patricia M. Gaffney, William Vernau, Colette Williams, Connie I Kuan Wu, Beverly Sturges, Linda J Lowenstine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Abstract: A 25-yr-old spayed female spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) developed intermittent right pelvic limb lameness that persisted following conservative medical therapy. No obvious musculoskeletal lesions were noted on initial physical exam; however, spinal radiography was suspicious for possible intervertebral degenerative joint disease or discospondylitis. Despite prolonged medical therapy, the lameness progressed to minimal weight bearing and marked muscle atrophy of the right pelvic limb. Electromyography showed spontaneous activity in the muscles of right sciatic nerve distribution. Sensory and motor nerve conduction velocities in the right tibial and peroneal nerves were undetectable and markedly reduced, respectively. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed a large, space-occupying mass on the right side of the sacrum and pelvis. Antemortem fine-needle aspiration of the mass and postmortem histopathology resulted in diagnosis of a high-grade squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac is very rare in domestic dogs and previously unreported in spotted hyenas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1068-1074
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2013


  • Anal sac
  • Crocuta crocuta
  • electromyography
  • hyena
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • squamous cell carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)


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