Spatial distribution of seroprevalence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in Washington, Oregon, and California

Danielle Carrade, Janet E Foley, Michael Sullivan, Colin W. Foley, Jane E Sykes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: In the US little spatially defined information regarding exposure to most vector-borne pathogens in dogs is available for the states of California (CA), Oregon (OR), and Washington (WA). Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of seroprevalence for 4 vector-borne pathogens, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Dirofilaria immitis, across the 3 western coastal states of the contiguous United States that extend from the northern Mexican to the southern Canadian border. Methods: A convenience sample, targeting blood from 20 pet dogs per county across CA, OR, and WA, was evaluated using a canine point-of-care ELISA kit. Geographic coordinates of home zip code were displayed using a geographic information system. A total of 2431 dogs from CA, OR, and WA were tested. Results: The overall seroprevalence was highest for A. phagocytophilum (2.4%), followed by B. burgdorferi (1.2%), and E. canis (0.7%). The prevalence of infection with D. immitis was 0.7%. At the individual dog level, there was a significant association between seropositivity to B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum (odds ratio=18.7, 95% confidence interval=6.8-47.1). For most positive results, prevalence tended to decrease with increasing latitude; thus, the highest rates of seropositivity occurred in CA, followed by OR, and then WA; one exception was seropositivity for B. burgdorferi, which was higher in WA (0.38%) than in OR (0.15%), but considerably lower than in CA (2.00%). In WA, dogs that tested positive for A. phagocytophilum, E. canis, and B. burgdorferi were in the southern Puget Sound area. For D. immitis, none of the dogs in WA was positive. Conclusions: Seropositivity for vector-borne pathogens is broadly but patchily distributed in dogs in CA, OR, and WA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)293-302
Number of pages10
JournalVeterinary Clinical Pathology
Volume40
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2011

Fingerprint

Ehrlichia canis
Anaplasma phagocytophilum
Dirofilaria immitis
Borrelia burgdorferi
Seroepidemiologic Studies
seroprevalence
spatial distribution
Dogs
dogs
pathogens
Point-of-Care Systems
Geographic Information Systems
Pets
geographic information systems
odds ratio
pets
Canidae
confidence interval
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Odds Ratio

Keywords

  • Borreliosis
  • Ehrlichiosis
  • Geographic information system
  • Granulocytic anaplasmosis
  • Heartworm
  • Lyme disease
  • Vector-borne

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

@article{3dd84307f26e4423b6f975b12175a9d7,
title = "Spatial distribution of seroprevalence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in Washington, Oregon, and California",
abstract = "Background: In the US little spatially defined information regarding exposure to most vector-borne pathogens in dogs is available for the states of California (CA), Oregon (OR), and Washington (WA). Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of seroprevalence for 4 vector-borne pathogens, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Dirofilaria immitis, across the 3 western coastal states of the contiguous United States that extend from the northern Mexican to the southern Canadian border. Methods: A convenience sample, targeting blood from 20 pet dogs per county across CA, OR, and WA, was evaluated using a canine point-of-care ELISA kit. Geographic coordinates of home zip code were displayed using a geographic information system. A total of 2431 dogs from CA, OR, and WA were tested. Results: The overall seroprevalence was highest for A. phagocytophilum (2.4{\%}), followed by B. burgdorferi (1.2{\%}), and E. canis (0.7{\%}). The prevalence of infection with D. immitis was 0.7{\%}. At the individual dog level, there was a significant association between seropositivity to B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum (odds ratio=18.7, 95{\%} confidence interval=6.8-47.1). For most positive results, prevalence tended to decrease with increasing latitude; thus, the highest rates of seropositivity occurred in CA, followed by OR, and then WA; one exception was seropositivity for B. burgdorferi, which was higher in WA (0.38{\%}) than in OR (0.15{\%}), but considerably lower than in CA (2.00{\%}). In WA, dogs that tested positive for A. phagocytophilum, E. canis, and B. burgdorferi were in the southern Puget Sound area. For D. immitis, none of the dogs in WA was positive. Conclusions: Seropositivity for vector-borne pathogens is broadly but patchily distributed in dogs in CA, OR, and WA.",
keywords = "Borreliosis, Ehrlichiosis, Geographic information system, Granulocytic anaplasmosis, Heartworm, Lyme disease, Vector-borne",
author = "Danielle Carrade and Foley, {Janet E} and Michael Sullivan and Foley, {Colin W.} and Sykes, {Jane E}",
year = "2011",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1111/j.1939-165X.2011.00334.x",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "40",
pages = "293--302",
journal = "Veterinary Clinical Pathology",
issn = "0275-6382",
publisher = "American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Spatial distribution of seroprevalence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in Washington, Oregon, and California

AU - Carrade, Danielle

AU - Foley, Janet E

AU - Sullivan, Michael

AU - Foley, Colin W.

AU - Sykes, Jane E

PY - 2011/9

Y1 - 2011/9

N2 - Background: In the US little spatially defined information regarding exposure to most vector-borne pathogens in dogs is available for the states of California (CA), Oregon (OR), and Washington (WA). Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of seroprevalence for 4 vector-borne pathogens, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Dirofilaria immitis, across the 3 western coastal states of the contiguous United States that extend from the northern Mexican to the southern Canadian border. Methods: A convenience sample, targeting blood from 20 pet dogs per county across CA, OR, and WA, was evaluated using a canine point-of-care ELISA kit. Geographic coordinates of home zip code were displayed using a geographic information system. A total of 2431 dogs from CA, OR, and WA were tested. Results: The overall seroprevalence was highest for A. phagocytophilum (2.4%), followed by B. burgdorferi (1.2%), and E. canis (0.7%). The prevalence of infection with D. immitis was 0.7%. At the individual dog level, there was a significant association between seropositivity to B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum (odds ratio=18.7, 95% confidence interval=6.8-47.1). For most positive results, prevalence tended to decrease with increasing latitude; thus, the highest rates of seropositivity occurred in CA, followed by OR, and then WA; one exception was seropositivity for B. burgdorferi, which was higher in WA (0.38%) than in OR (0.15%), but considerably lower than in CA (2.00%). In WA, dogs that tested positive for A. phagocytophilum, E. canis, and B. burgdorferi were in the southern Puget Sound area. For D. immitis, none of the dogs in WA was positive. Conclusions: Seropositivity for vector-borne pathogens is broadly but patchily distributed in dogs in CA, OR, and WA.

AB - Background: In the US little spatially defined information regarding exposure to most vector-borne pathogens in dogs is available for the states of California (CA), Oregon (OR), and Washington (WA). Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of seroprevalence for 4 vector-borne pathogens, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Dirofilaria immitis, across the 3 western coastal states of the contiguous United States that extend from the northern Mexican to the southern Canadian border. Methods: A convenience sample, targeting blood from 20 pet dogs per county across CA, OR, and WA, was evaluated using a canine point-of-care ELISA kit. Geographic coordinates of home zip code were displayed using a geographic information system. A total of 2431 dogs from CA, OR, and WA were tested. Results: The overall seroprevalence was highest for A. phagocytophilum (2.4%), followed by B. burgdorferi (1.2%), and E. canis (0.7%). The prevalence of infection with D. immitis was 0.7%. At the individual dog level, there was a significant association between seropositivity to B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum (odds ratio=18.7, 95% confidence interval=6.8-47.1). For most positive results, prevalence tended to decrease with increasing latitude; thus, the highest rates of seropositivity occurred in CA, followed by OR, and then WA; one exception was seropositivity for B. burgdorferi, which was higher in WA (0.38%) than in OR (0.15%), but considerably lower than in CA (2.00%). In WA, dogs that tested positive for A. phagocytophilum, E. canis, and B. burgdorferi were in the southern Puget Sound area. For D. immitis, none of the dogs in WA was positive. Conclusions: Seropositivity for vector-borne pathogens is broadly but patchily distributed in dogs in CA, OR, and WA.

KW - Borreliosis

KW - Ehrlichiosis

KW - Geographic information system

KW - Granulocytic anaplasmosis

KW - Heartworm

KW - Lyme disease

KW - Vector-borne

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U2 - 10.1111/j.1939-165X.2011.00334.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1939-165X.2011.00334.x

M3 - Article

C2 - 21827514

AN - SCOPUS:80052549092

VL - 40

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JO - Veterinary Clinical Pathology

JF - Veterinary Clinical Pathology

SN - 0275-6382

IS - 3

ER -