Spatial and temporal-controlled tissue heating on a modified clinical ultrasound scanner for generating mild hyperthermia in tumors

Dustin E. Kruse, Chun Yen Lai, Douglas N. Stephens, Patrick Sutcliffe, Eric E. Paoli, Stephen H. Barnes, Katherine W. Ferrara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Scopus citations


A new system is presented for generating controlled tissue heating with a clinical ultrasound scanner, and initial invitro and in vivo results are presented that demonstrate both transient and sustained heating in the mild-hyperthermia range of 37°C-42 °C. The system consists of a Siemens Antares ultrasound scanner, a custom dual-frequency three-row transducer array and an external temperature feedback control system. The transducer has two outer rows that operate at 1.5 MHz for tissue heating and a center row that operates at 5 MHz for B-mode imaging to guide the therapy. We compare the field maps obtained using a hydrophone against calculations of the ultrasound beam based on monochromatic and linear assumptions. Using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we compare predicted time-dependent thermal profiles to measured profiles for soy tofu as a tissue-mimicking phantom. In vitro results show differential heating of 6 °C for chicken breast and tofu. In vivo tests of the system were performed on three mice bearing Met-1 tumors, which is a model of aggressive, metastatic, and highly vascular breast cancer. In superficially implanted tumors, we demonstrate controlled heating to 42°C. We show that the system is able to maintain the temperature to within 0.1 °C of the desired temperature both in vitro and in vivo.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5374015
Pages (from-to)155-166
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2010



  • Acoustic fields
  • Bioheat transfer
  • Biomedical acoustics
  • Drug delivery
  • Ultrasound tissue heating

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering

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