Soot formation in a steady, nonpremixed, recirculating flame

Sukhdev Singh Dhillon, GoSu Yang, Michael Moody, Clement Yam, Ian M. Kennedy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


An inverted step burner has been designed in which a steady ethylene, recirculating flame is established. The burner was housed within a vertical wind tunnel. Laser extinction was used to determine the soot volume fraction in the recirculation zone. Temperatures were determined by a thermocouple. One-dimensional laser-Doppler velocity (LDV) measurements were obtained with a frequency shift system to measure the flow field in the recirculating flame. All the measurements were obtained for a fixed ethylene flow rate; a low and a high velocity in the approach flow were investigated. Variation in air velocity changed the structure of the flame. At low flow conditions, the soot loading has two distinct peaks at the lower and upper edge of the flame. At the higher air velocity, the upper part of the flame has a much lower relative soot loading as a result of the shorter residence time. The location of the peak values of the soot also changed with the residence time. The peak temperature was of the order of 1600°C. The soot loading was low in the regions of high temperature and relatively high in regions of low temperatures, reflecting the important role of thermal radiation in these luminous flames. The LDV measurements were used to reveal the nature of the flow field. The local soot loading in the flame increased as the approach flow velocity increased; this result suggests the possibility that soot may continue to grow when it is recirculated to regions of growth in a flame.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)405-412
Number of pages8
JournalExperimental Thermal and Fluid Science
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1994


  • combustion
  • laminar diffusion flame
  • laser-Doppler velocimetry
  • recirculating flame
  • soot formation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Engineering(all)


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