Snake spectacle vessel permeability to sodium fluorescein

Roy W. Bellhorn, Ann R. Strom, Monica J. Motta, John Doval, Michelle Hawkins, Joanne R Paul-Murphy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Assess vascular permeability of the snake spectacle to sodium fluorescein during resting and shedding phases of the ecdysis cycle. Animal studied: Ball python (Python regius). Procedures: The snake was anesthetized, and spectral domain optic coherence tomography was performed prior to angiographic procedures. An electronically controlled digital single-lens reflex camera with a dual-head flash equipped with filters suitable for fluorescein angiography was used to make images. Sodium fluorescein (10%) solution was administered by intracardiac injection. Angiographic images were made as fluorescein traversed the vasculature of the iris and spectacle. Individually acquired photographic frames were assessed and sequenced into pseudovideo image streams for further evaluation Conclusions: Fluorescein angiograms of the snake spectacle were readily obtained. Vascular permeability varied with the phase of ecdysis. Copious leakage of fluorescein occurred during the shedding phase. This angiographic method may provide diverse opportunities to investigate vascular aspects of snake spectacle ecdysis, dysecdysis, and the integument in general.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalVeterinary Ophthalmology
StateAccepted/In press - 2017


  • Ball python
  • Ecdysis
  • Fluorescein angiography
  • Permeability
  • Python regius
  • Snake spectacle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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