Significance of orbital measurements in the fetus

T. Trout, N. E. Budorick, D. H. Pretorius, John P McGahan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Orbital imaging is not performed routinely during obstetrical sonography, but the discovery of abnormal orbital diameters provides evidence of fetal dysgenesis. This study was designed to establish the validity of a previously developed orbital nomogram for a high-risk population and to determine whether roved cases of hypotelorism and hypertelorism fell outside the normal ranges. Inner and outer orbital measurements of 422 fetuses were obtained prospectively during routine obstetrical sonography in a high-risk patient population. Comparison of these measurements to the previously established nomogram demonstrated that the nomogram is still accurate with current equipment and in a population at high risk for anomalies. In addition, sonograms and autopsy and clinical data from six cases of hypotelorism, two of cyclopia, and three of hypertelorism were reviewed retrospectively. Both inner and outer orbital measurements fell clearly below two standard deviations of the mean in all six cases of hypotelorism. The three cases of hypertelorism had inner orbital measurements above the 95th percentile and outer orbital distances within normal limits but near the 95th percentile. All cases with abnormal orbital distances had associated intra-or extracranial abnormalities, including holoprosencephaly, encephalocele, cleft palate, cardiac anomalies, imperforate anus, diaphragmatic hernia, and digit anomalies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)937-943
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Ultrasound in Medicine
Issue number12
StatePublished - 1994

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology


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