Serum total and ionized magnesium concentrations and urinary fractional excretion of magnesium in cats with diabetes mellitus and diabetic ketoacidosis

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Abstract

Objective - To determine magnesium (Mg) status in cats with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), evaluate changes in Mg status after treatment for DKA, and correlate Mg status with systemic blood pressure and degree of glycemic control. Design - Case series and cohort study. Animals - 12 healthy cats (controls), 21 cats with DM, and 7 cats with DKA. Procedure - Serum total magnesium (tMg) and ionized magnesium (iMg) concentrations and spot urinary fractional excretion of magnesium (FEmg) were determined, using serum and urine samples obtained from all cats when they were entered in the study and from cats with DKA 12, 24, and 48 hours after initiating treatment. Indirect blood pressure and degree of glycemic control were determined in 10 and 21 cats with DM, respectively. Results - Initially, 2 and 13 cats with DM and 1 and 4 cats with DKA had serum tMg and iMg concentrations, respectively, less than the low reference limit (mean - 2 SD) determined for controls. In cats with DKA, serum tMg concentration decreased significantly over time after initiating treatment. Urinary FEmg was significantly higher in cats with DM or DKA, compared with controls. Systemic hypertension was not detected nor was there a correlation between Mg status and degree of glycemic control in cats with DM. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Hypomagnesemia was a common finding in cats with DM and DKA and was more readily identified by measuring serum iMg concentration than tMg concentration. The clinical ramifications of hypomagnesemia in such cats remain to be determined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1455-1459
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Volume215
Issue number10
StatePublished - Nov 15 1999

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Diabetic Ketoacidosis
ketosis
diabetes mellitus
Magnesium
Diabetes Mellitus
magnesium
Cats
excretion
cats
Serum
glycemic control
hypomagnesemia
blood pressure
Blood Pressure
cohort studies
hypertension

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

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title = "Serum total and ionized magnesium concentrations and urinary fractional excretion of magnesium in cats with diabetes mellitus and diabetic ketoacidosis",
abstract = "Objective - To determine magnesium (Mg) status in cats with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), evaluate changes in Mg status after treatment for DKA, and correlate Mg status with systemic blood pressure and degree of glycemic control. Design - Case series and cohort study. Animals - 12 healthy cats (controls), 21 cats with DM, and 7 cats with DKA. Procedure - Serum total magnesium (tMg) and ionized magnesium (iMg) concentrations and spot urinary fractional excretion of magnesium (FEmg) were determined, using serum and urine samples obtained from all cats when they were entered in the study and from cats with DKA 12, 24, and 48 hours after initiating treatment. Indirect blood pressure and degree of glycemic control were determined in 10 and 21 cats with DM, respectively. Results - Initially, 2 and 13 cats with DM and 1 and 4 cats with DKA had serum tMg and iMg concentrations, respectively, less than the low reference limit (mean - 2 SD) determined for controls. In cats with DKA, serum tMg concentration decreased significantly over time after initiating treatment. Urinary FEmg was significantly higher in cats with DM or DKA, compared with controls. Systemic hypertension was not detected nor was there a correlation between Mg status and degree of glycemic control in cats with DM. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Hypomagnesemia was a common finding in cats with DM and DKA and was more readily identified by measuring serum iMg concentration than tMg concentration. The clinical ramifications of hypomagnesemia in such cats remain to be determined.",
author = "Norris, {Carol R.} and Nelson, {Richard W} and Christopher, {Mary M}",
year = "1999",
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T1 - Serum total and ionized magnesium concentrations and urinary fractional excretion of magnesium in cats with diabetes mellitus and diabetic ketoacidosis

AU - Norris, Carol R.

AU - Nelson, Richard W

AU - Christopher, Mary M

PY - 1999/11/15

Y1 - 1999/11/15

N2 - Objective - To determine magnesium (Mg) status in cats with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), evaluate changes in Mg status after treatment for DKA, and correlate Mg status with systemic blood pressure and degree of glycemic control. Design - Case series and cohort study. Animals - 12 healthy cats (controls), 21 cats with DM, and 7 cats with DKA. Procedure - Serum total magnesium (tMg) and ionized magnesium (iMg) concentrations and spot urinary fractional excretion of magnesium (FEmg) were determined, using serum and urine samples obtained from all cats when they were entered in the study and from cats with DKA 12, 24, and 48 hours after initiating treatment. Indirect blood pressure and degree of glycemic control were determined in 10 and 21 cats with DM, respectively. Results - Initially, 2 and 13 cats with DM and 1 and 4 cats with DKA had serum tMg and iMg concentrations, respectively, less than the low reference limit (mean - 2 SD) determined for controls. In cats with DKA, serum tMg concentration decreased significantly over time after initiating treatment. Urinary FEmg was significantly higher in cats with DM or DKA, compared with controls. Systemic hypertension was not detected nor was there a correlation between Mg status and degree of glycemic control in cats with DM. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Hypomagnesemia was a common finding in cats with DM and DKA and was more readily identified by measuring serum iMg concentration than tMg concentration. The clinical ramifications of hypomagnesemia in such cats remain to be determined.

AB - Objective - To determine magnesium (Mg) status in cats with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), evaluate changes in Mg status after treatment for DKA, and correlate Mg status with systemic blood pressure and degree of glycemic control. Design - Case series and cohort study. Animals - 12 healthy cats (controls), 21 cats with DM, and 7 cats with DKA. Procedure - Serum total magnesium (tMg) and ionized magnesium (iMg) concentrations and spot urinary fractional excretion of magnesium (FEmg) were determined, using serum and urine samples obtained from all cats when they were entered in the study and from cats with DKA 12, 24, and 48 hours after initiating treatment. Indirect blood pressure and degree of glycemic control were determined in 10 and 21 cats with DM, respectively. Results - Initially, 2 and 13 cats with DM and 1 and 4 cats with DKA had serum tMg and iMg concentrations, respectively, less than the low reference limit (mean - 2 SD) determined for controls. In cats with DKA, serum tMg concentration decreased significantly over time after initiating treatment. Urinary FEmg was significantly higher in cats with DM or DKA, compared with controls. Systemic hypertension was not detected nor was there a correlation between Mg status and degree of glycemic control in cats with DM. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Hypomagnesemia was a common finding in cats with DM and DKA and was more readily identified by measuring serum iMg concentration than tMg concentration. The clinical ramifications of hypomagnesemia in such cats remain to be determined.

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