Objective: Many vascular surgeons construct arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) for hemodialysis access as the primary choice access. A significant number of AVFs fail to mature, however, leading to patient frustration and repeated operations. Metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, particularly MMP-2 and MMP-9, may be important for AVF maturation. We therefore sought to identify whether serum MMP levels could serve as a biomarker for predicting future successful AVF maturation. Methods: Blood was collected from patients with chronic renal insufficiency at the time of surgery for long-term hemodialysis access. Serum was separated from whole blood and ultracentrifuged at 1000g for 10 minutes. Serum aliquots were frozen at 80°C until used for analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to assay levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase type 2 (TIMP-2), and TIMP type 4 (TIMP-4). Clinical end points were used to divide patients into failed and matured AVF groups. Successful maturation was considered in patients who had specific duplex findings or 1 month of successful two-needle cannulation hemodialysis. MMP/TIMP ratios were calculated as an index of the MMP axis activity because MMP activity parallels alterations in TIMP levels. Results: Of 20 enrolled patients, AVF maturation was successful in 13 and failed in 7. Serum levels of MMP-2/TIMP-2 were significantly higher in patients with matured AVFs vs levels in those that failed (P =.003). Similarly, a trend toward increased serum levels of MMP-9/TIMP-4 was found in patients with successful AVF (P =.06). Conclusions: MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels were different among patients whose AVF matured vs those who did not. Further follow-up studies to determine the predictability of AVF maturation using relative patient serum levels of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 should be performed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine