Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a recalcitrant and paralyzing disease often discovered in the end stage at the time of diagnosis, which is often performed by physical examination and diagnostic imaging. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is typically caused by trauma or long-term steroid use. There are over 30 million patients in the US taking steroids, and roughly 40% will develop osteonecrosis of the femoral head. However, the exact pathophysiological process is not well understood. This study aims to examine the alteration in serum glycosylation of osteonecrosis of the femoral head using the state-of-the-art analytical tools to provide more chemical data for pathophysiology research and possibly biomarker discovery. A training set containing 27 serum samples from steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head patients and 25 from gender- and age-matched controls was collected and analyzed. Glycosylation of whole serum and site-specific glycosylation of immunoglobulins are characterized using electrospray ionization-Q-time of flight and electrospray ionization-Triple-Quadruple via multiple reaction monitoring, respectively. The whole serum glycosylation analysis yielded 14 N-glycan compositions and multiple reaction monitoring yielded eight glycopeptides that were altered between cases and controls with statistical significance. The increase of nonsialylated, nonfucosylated N-glycans and decrease of fucosylated N-glycans are associated with the development of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Glycosylation is a posttranslational protein modification and is apparently affected by osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Future studies with a larger cohort and patients from earlier stage will be performed to assess these potential markers’ value in disease onset.
- liquid chromatography
- mass spectrometry
- osteonecrosis of the femoral head
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics