Background: Limited information is available about the role of adipokines in the development and progression of acute pancreatitis (AP) in dogs. Objectives: To determine whether the circulating concentrations of adipokines differed between healthy dogs and dogs with AP, and whether the circulating concentrations differed between AP survivors and AP nonsurvivors. Animals: Twenty-eight healthy dogs and 25 client-owned dogs with AP. Methods: Prospective observational cohort study of 25 client-owned dogs with newly diagnosed AP and 28 otherwise healthy dogs with similar body condition scores. The serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured. Results: The serum concentrations of leptin (P =.0021), resistin (P =.0010), visfatin (P <.0001), IL-1β (P <.0001), IL-6 (P =.0002), IL-10 (P <.0001), and IL-18 (P <.0001) were significantly higher in dogs with AP than healthy dogs, whereas the adiponectin concentration (P =.0011) was significantly lower. There were significant differences in the serum concentrations of leptin (P =.028) and adiponectin (P =.046) in survivors and nonsurvivors. After the disappearance of clinical signs, the concentrations of resistin (P =.037) and IL-1β (P =.027) decreased significantly, whereas the serum concentrations of leptin (P >.999), adiponectin (P =.11), visfatin (P =.83), IL-6 (P =.82), IL-10 (P =.82), IL-18 (P =.56), and TNF-α (P =.94) did not differ significantly. Conclusion and Clinical Importance: This study showed that dysregulation of adipokines might be involved in the pathogenesis of AP. In addition, leptin and adiponectin are likely to be associated with mortality rate in AP.
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