Serosurvey of viral infections in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)

Linda Munson, Laurie Marker, Edward Dubovi, Jennifer A. Spencer, James F. Evermann, Stephen J. O'Brien

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations


Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in captivity have unusually high morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases, a trait that could be an outcome of population homogeneity or the immunomodulating effects of chronic stress. Free-ranging Namibian cheetahs share ancestry with captive cheetahs, but their susceptibility to infectious diseases has not been investigated. The largest remaining population of free-ranging cheetahs resides on Namibian farmlands, where they share habitat with domestic dogs and cats known to carry viruses that affect cheetah health. To assess the extent to which free-ranging cheetahs are exposed to feline and canine viruses, sera from 81 free-ranging cheetahs sampled between 1992 and 1998 were evaluated for antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV), feline coronavirus (feline infections peritonitis virus; FCoV/ FIPV), feline herpesvirus I (FHVI), feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline calicivirus (FCV) and for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigens. Antibodies against CDV, FCoV/FIPV, FHVI, FPV, and FCV were detected in 24, 29, 12, 48, and 65% of the free-ranging population, respectively, although no evidence of viral disease was present in any animal at the time of sample collection. Neither FIV antibodies nor FeLV antigens were present in any free-ranging cheetah tested. Temporal variation in FCoV/FIPV seroprevalence during the study period suggested that this virus is not endemic in the free-ranging population. Antibodies against CDV were detected in cheetahs of all ages sampled between 1995 and 1998, suggesting the occurrence of an epidemic in Namibia during the time when CDV swept through other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. This evidence in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs of exposure to viruses that cause severe disease in captive cheetahs should direct future guidelines for translocations, including quarantine of seropositive cheetahs and preventing contact between cheetahs and domestic pets.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)23-31
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Wildlife Diseases
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2004


  • Acinonyx jubatus
  • Canine distemper virus
  • Cheetah
  • Feline corona virus
  • Namibia
  • Serosurvey

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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