Seronegative reactive spondyloarthritis and the skin

Elena Generali, Angela Ceribelli, Marco Massarotti, Luca Cantarini, Carlo Selmi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Spondyloarthritidies represent a group of conditions affecting the axial and peripheral muscoloskeletal apparatus and are often associated with psoriasis, infections, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Other diseases included in this category are psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and enteropathic arthritis. Reactive arthritis is an elusive spondyloarthritis, commonly occurring 1 to 3 weeks after a digestive or a genitourinary tract infection, in which microorganisms do not infect the joint directly. Reactive arthritis is classically characterized by large-joint arthritis, urethritis in men and cervicitis in women, and eye inflammation (usually conjunctivitis or uveitis) but encompasses numerous other symptoms and signs, including manifestations of dermatologic interest such as keratoderma blenorrhagicum and circinate balanitis. The diagnosis of reactive arthritis is clinical, and the infectious agent cannot always be identified due to disease latency after the infection. Most cases are self-limiting, but reactive arthritis may become chronic in 30% of cases. Treatment options include anti-inflammatory drugs, steroids, and sulfasalazine; biologic agents, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) blockers, have been recently used, but there are only a few randomized clinical trials on the treatment of reactive arthritis. The effectiveness of antimicrobials needs further evaluation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)531-537
Number of pages7
JournalClinics in Dermatology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology


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