The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most widely studied nonhuman primate (NHP) in biomedical research. We present an updated reference genome assembly (Mmul_10, contig N50 = 46 Mbp) that increases the sequence contiguity 120-fold and annotate it using 6.5 million full-length transcripts, thus improving our understanding of gene content, isoform diversity, and repeat organization. With the improved assembly of segmental duplications, we discovered new lineage-specific genes and expanded gene families that are potentially informative in studies of evolution and disease susceptibility. Wholegenome sequencing (WGS) data from 853 rhesus macaques identified 85.7 million single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and 10.5 million indel variants, including potentially damaging variants in genes associated with human autism and developmental delay, providing a framework for developing noninvasive NHP models of human disease.
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