Separating multiple processes in implicit social cognition: The quad model of implicit task performance

Frederica R. Conrey, Bertram Gawronski, Jeffrey Sherman, Kurt Hugenberg, Carla J. Groom

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

336 Scopus citations


The authors argue that implicit measures of social cognition do not reflect only automatic processes but rather the joint contributions of multiple, qualitatively different processes. The quadruple process model proposed and tested in the present article quantitatively disentangles the influences of 4 distinct processes on implicit task performance: the likelihood that automatic bias is activated by a stimulus; that a correct response can be determined; that automatic bias is overcome; and that, in the absence of other information, a guessing bias drives responses. The stochastic and construct validity of the model is confirmed in 5 studies. The model is shown to provide a more nuanced and detailed understanding of the interplay of multiple processes in implicit task performance, including implicit measures of attitudes, prejudice, and stereotyping.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)469-487
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Personality and Social Psychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1 2005


  • Automaticity
  • Controlled processing
  • Implicit measures
  • Multinomial model
  • Process dissociation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science

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