Selected diet and lifestyle factors are associated with estrogen metabolites in a multiracial/ethnic population of women

MaryFran R. Sowers, Sybil Crawford, Daniel S. McConnell, John F. Randolph, Ellen B. Gold, Margaret K. Wilkin, Bill Lasley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


Diet and lifestyle factors, body size, and smoking behavior may influence estrogen metabolism, but the nature of these relations may vary according to race/ethnic groups. We evaluated the association of lifestyle factors with estrogen metabolites 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1) and 16α-hydroxyestrone (16α-OHE1) in a racially diverse population. With a cross-sectional study design, urine samples from 1881 African-American, Caucasian, Chinese, Japanese, and Hispanic women, aged 42-52 y, from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) were assayed by EIA for 2-OHE1 and 16α-OHE1. Dietary factors and beverages were measured using a modified Block FFQ. Dietary fiber, vegetable and fruit servings, Brassica vegetables, polyphenols, coffee, caffeine, green and black tea, and total alcohol and wine were related to metabolite values using multiple variable regression analyses. In adjusted analyses, 2-OHE1 concentrations were significantly associated with race/ethnicity, weight, smoking, and consumption of hydroxybenzoic acid, anthocyanidins, wine, and caffeine (P < 0.05). Regression models incorporating these variables explained 19-20% of the variation in 2-OHE1 concentrations. Regression models for 16α-OHE1, which explained 16-17% of the variability, included race/ethnicity, smoking, caffeine, total dietary fiber, and fiber from fruits and vegetables as variables. These associations may reflect why increased consumption of polyphenol-containing foods and fruit as well as decreased smoking, caffeine intake, and body size would be consistent with hypothesized benefits and risks for selected health outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1588-1595
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2006


  • Body size
  • Caffeine
  • Estrogen metabolism
  • Isoflavones
  • Polyphenols

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Selected diet and lifestyle factors are associated with estrogen metabolites in a multiracial/ethnic population of women'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this