Secular Trends in Cognitive Performance in Older Black and White U.S. Adults, 1993-2012: Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project

Jennifer Weuve, Kumar Rajan, Lisa L. Barnes, Robert S. Wilson, Denis A. Evans

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective To characterize secular trends from 1993 to 2012 in cognitive performance using a cohort of older black and white U.S. adults, and compare trends by race. Method Our data come from 8,906 participants of the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), a longitudinal, population-based cohort (age ≥ 67, 60% black). Participants underwent cognitive assessments in six 3-year study cycles from 1993 to 1996 through 2010 to 2012. We computed 3 measures of cognitive performance: global cognition, episodic memory, and perceptual speed. Results Mean performance in terms of global cognitive score followed a secular pattern of modest decline over the 6 study cycles. The trend was most pronounced for perceptual speed. Mean scores among black participants were consistently lower than those for whites; these disparities in mean performance narrowed over time, especially on perceptual speed, but appeared to widen at the last cycle. Global scores among the upper quartile of performers rose slightly, but scores among the lowest quartile of performers dropped precipitously. Discussion Between 1993 and 2012, secular trends in cognitive performance in this established cohort did not follow a clear pattern of improvement, contrasting with previous research. But patterns differed by cognitive domain, performance level, and race.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S73-S81
JournalJournals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Volume73
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 16 2018
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Episodic Memory
Health
trend
health
Cognition
performance
Research
Population
hydroquinone
cognition

Keywords

  • Cognition
  • Epidemiology
  • Health disparities
  • Race

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Social Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Gerontology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies

Cite this

Secular Trends in Cognitive Performance in Older Black and White U.S. Adults, 1993-2012 : Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project. / Weuve, Jennifer; Rajan, Kumar; Barnes, Lisa L.; Wilson, Robert S.; Evans, Denis A.

In: Journals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, Vol. 73, 16.04.2018, p. S73-S81.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

@article{e78f43d8f5ab42c6a9cc9e8930c9bd10,
title = "Secular Trends in Cognitive Performance in Older Black and White U.S. Adults, 1993-2012: Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project",
abstract = "Objective To characterize secular trends from 1993 to 2012 in cognitive performance using a cohort of older black and white U.S. adults, and compare trends by race. Method Our data come from 8,906 participants of the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), a longitudinal, population-based cohort (age ≥ 67, 60{\%} black). Participants underwent cognitive assessments in six 3-year study cycles from 1993 to 1996 through 2010 to 2012. We computed 3 measures of cognitive performance: global cognition, episodic memory, and perceptual speed. Results Mean performance in terms of global cognitive score followed a secular pattern of modest decline over the 6 study cycles. The trend was most pronounced for perceptual speed. Mean scores among black participants were consistently lower than those for whites; these disparities in mean performance narrowed over time, especially on perceptual speed, but appeared to widen at the last cycle. Global scores among the upper quartile of performers rose slightly, but scores among the lowest quartile of performers dropped precipitously. Discussion Between 1993 and 2012, secular trends in cognitive performance in this established cohort did not follow a clear pattern of improvement, contrasting with previous research. But patterns differed by cognitive domain, performance level, and race.",
keywords = "Cognition, Epidemiology, Health disparities, Race",
author = "Jennifer Weuve and Kumar Rajan and Barnes, {Lisa L.} and Wilson, {Robert S.} and Evans, {Denis A.}",
year = "2018",
month = "4",
day = "16",
doi = "10.1093/geronb/gbx167",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "73",
pages = "S73--S81",
journal = "Journals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences",
issn = "1079-5014",
publisher = "Gerontological Society of America",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Secular Trends in Cognitive Performance in Older Black and White U.S. Adults, 1993-2012

T2 - Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project

AU - Weuve, Jennifer

AU - Rajan, Kumar

AU - Barnes, Lisa L.

AU - Wilson, Robert S.

AU - Evans, Denis A.

PY - 2018/4/16

Y1 - 2018/4/16

N2 - Objective To characterize secular trends from 1993 to 2012 in cognitive performance using a cohort of older black and white U.S. adults, and compare trends by race. Method Our data come from 8,906 participants of the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), a longitudinal, population-based cohort (age ≥ 67, 60% black). Participants underwent cognitive assessments in six 3-year study cycles from 1993 to 1996 through 2010 to 2012. We computed 3 measures of cognitive performance: global cognition, episodic memory, and perceptual speed. Results Mean performance in terms of global cognitive score followed a secular pattern of modest decline over the 6 study cycles. The trend was most pronounced for perceptual speed. Mean scores among black participants were consistently lower than those for whites; these disparities in mean performance narrowed over time, especially on perceptual speed, but appeared to widen at the last cycle. Global scores among the upper quartile of performers rose slightly, but scores among the lowest quartile of performers dropped precipitously. Discussion Between 1993 and 2012, secular trends in cognitive performance in this established cohort did not follow a clear pattern of improvement, contrasting with previous research. But patterns differed by cognitive domain, performance level, and race.

AB - Objective To characterize secular trends from 1993 to 2012 in cognitive performance using a cohort of older black and white U.S. adults, and compare trends by race. Method Our data come from 8,906 participants of the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), a longitudinal, population-based cohort (age ≥ 67, 60% black). Participants underwent cognitive assessments in six 3-year study cycles from 1993 to 1996 through 2010 to 2012. We computed 3 measures of cognitive performance: global cognition, episodic memory, and perceptual speed. Results Mean performance in terms of global cognitive score followed a secular pattern of modest decline over the 6 study cycles. The trend was most pronounced for perceptual speed. Mean scores among black participants were consistently lower than those for whites; these disparities in mean performance narrowed over time, especially on perceptual speed, but appeared to widen at the last cycle. Global scores among the upper quartile of performers rose slightly, but scores among the lowest quartile of performers dropped precipitously. Discussion Between 1993 and 2012, secular trends in cognitive performance in this established cohort did not follow a clear pattern of improvement, contrasting with previous research. But patterns differed by cognitive domain, performance level, and race.

KW - Cognition

KW - Epidemiology

KW - Health disparities

KW - Race

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85047957883&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85047957883&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1093/geronb/gbx167

DO - 10.1093/geronb/gbx167

M3 - Review article

C2 - 29669103

AN - SCOPUS:85047957883

VL - 73

SP - S73-S81

JO - Journals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences

JF - Journals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences

SN - 1079-5014

ER -