Safety profile of nevirapine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection

Richard B Pollard, Patrick Robinson, Kevin Dransfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

186 Scopus citations

Abstract

Nevirapine (NVP) is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor widely used in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus disease. To establish its safety profile, we conducted a review of data from prospective US and international clinical trials involving a total of 906 adult patients and 468 pediatric patients treated with NVP. Drug-related adverse events were similar in adults and children, with rash and nausea most frequently reported in adults and rash and granulocytopenia most frequently reported in children. A separate analysis of rash based on data from adult patients in controlled trials demonstrated a 16% rate of NVP-attributable rash in these patients. Of patients with NVP-associated rash, 65% developed rash within the first 6 weeks of therapy, and it has been shown that a lower lead-in dose (200 mg/d vs the standard 400 mg/d) for the first 2 weeks of NVP treatment reduces the frequency of drug-associated rash. Serious rash (Stevens-Johnson syndrome [SJS] or SJS/toxic epidermal necrolysis transition syndrome) occurred with an incidence of 0.3% and clinical hepatitis with an incidence of 1.0% among NVP- treated patients in clinical trials. Adverse event data from long-term clinical trials demonstrated a lower incidence of NVP-related adverse events than in short-term trials of NVP therapy. An analysis of abnormal laboratory findings using thresholds similar to those found in the prescribing information for other commonly used antiretrovital agents and data from controlled trials in adults showed that the most frequently observed laboratory abnormalities were elevations in liver function test results. Approximately 50,000 patients in the United States had been treated with marketed NVP at the time of writing, and postmarketing surveillance has supported the overall safety profile observed in clinical trials. NVP has been shown to be well tolerated is both adult and pediatric patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1071-1092
Number of pages22
JournalClinical Therapeutics
Volume20
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 1998
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Nevirapine
  • Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
  • Tolerability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology

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