Role of California (Callipepla californica) and Gambel's (Callipepla gambelii) quail in the ecology of mosquito-borne encephalitis viruses in California, USA

William Reisen, Vincent M. Martinez, Ying Fang, Sandra Garcia, Siranoosh Ashtari, Sarah S. Wheeler, Brian D. Carroll

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Gambel's and California quail were infected repeatedly whenever western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), and (WNV) West Nile virus were active during summer in California. The timing of virus appearance and quail infection coincided well with the appearance of chicks in nature, leading us to hypothesize that large coveys containing these non-immune birds could be important in focal virus amplification in rural settings. However, experimental infection studies with chicks, juveniles, and adults of both quail species using sympatric strains of WEEV, SLEV, and WNV indicated that only immature birds were competent hosts for WEEV, producing viremias sufficiently elevated to efficiently infect Culex tarsalis mosquitoes. Quail were less competent hosts for WNV and were incompetent for SLEV. Large populations of quail that frequently are infected with SLEV or WNV, but produce low to moderate viremias, may serve as dead end hosts for these viruses. Due to their abundance and repeated infection, these birds may attenuate virus amplification in rural areas of California and possibly could be one reason why WNV epidemics seem to occur more frequently in urban and periurban than in rural landscapes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)248-260
Number of pages13
JournalVector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Volume6
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2006

Fingerprint

Arbovirus Encephalitis
Encephalitis Viruses
St. Louis Encephalitis Viruses
Quail
Ecology
Western Equine Encephalitis Viruses
Viruses
Birds
Viremia
Infection
Sympatry
West Nile virus
Culex
Culicidae
Population

Keywords

  • California
  • California quail
  • Gambel's quail
  • St. Louis encephalitis virus
  • West Nile virus
  • Western equine encephalomyelitis virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

Cite this

Role of California (Callipepla californica) and Gambel's (Callipepla gambelii) quail in the ecology of mosquito-borne encephalitis viruses in California, USA. / Reisen, William; Martinez, Vincent M.; Fang, Ying; Garcia, Sandra; Ashtari, Siranoosh; Wheeler, Sarah S.; Carroll, Brian D.

In: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 6, No. 3, 01.09.2006, p. 248-260.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Reisen, William ; Martinez, Vincent M. ; Fang, Ying ; Garcia, Sandra ; Ashtari, Siranoosh ; Wheeler, Sarah S. ; Carroll, Brian D. / Role of California (Callipepla californica) and Gambel's (Callipepla gambelii) quail in the ecology of mosquito-borne encephalitis viruses in California, USA. In: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 2006 ; Vol. 6, No. 3. pp. 248-260.
@article{747a1815a195421786944712213881d3,
title = "Role of California (Callipepla californica) and Gambel's (Callipepla gambelii) quail in the ecology of mosquito-borne encephalitis viruses in California, USA",
abstract = "Gambel's and California quail were infected repeatedly whenever western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), and (WNV) West Nile virus were active during summer in California. The timing of virus appearance and quail infection coincided well with the appearance of chicks in nature, leading us to hypothesize that large coveys containing these non-immune birds could be important in focal virus amplification in rural settings. However, experimental infection studies with chicks, juveniles, and adults of both quail species using sympatric strains of WEEV, SLEV, and WNV indicated that only immature birds were competent hosts for WEEV, producing viremias sufficiently elevated to efficiently infect Culex tarsalis mosquitoes. Quail were less competent hosts for WNV and were incompetent for SLEV. Large populations of quail that frequently are infected with SLEV or WNV, but produce low to moderate viremias, may serve as dead end hosts for these viruses. Due to their abundance and repeated infection, these birds may attenuate virus amplification in rural areas of California and possibly could be one reason why WNV epidemics seem to occur more frequently in urban and periurban than in rural landscapes.",
keywords = "California, California quail, Gambel's quail, St. Louis encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Western equine encephalomyelitis virus",
author = "William Reisen and Martinez, {Vincent M.} and Ying Fang and Sandra Garcia and Siranoosh Ashtari and Wheeler, {Sarah S.} and Carroll, {Brian D.}",
year = "2006",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1089/vbz.2006.6.248",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "6",
pages = "248--260",
journal = "Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases",
issn = "1530-3667",
publisher = "Mary Ann Liebert Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Role of California (Callipepla californica) and Gambel's (Callipepla gambelii) quail in the ecology of mosquito-borne encephalitis viruses in California, USA

AU - Reisen, William

AU - Martinez, Vincent M.

AU - Fang, Ying

AU - Garcia, Sandra

AU - Ashtari, Siranoosh

AU - Wheeler, Sarah S.

AU - Carroll, Brian D.

PY - 2006/9/1

Y1 - 2006/9/1

N2 - Gambel's and California quail were infected repeatedly whenever western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), and (WNV) West Nile virus were active during summer in California. The timing of virus appearance and quail infection coincided well with the appearance of chicks in nature, leading us to hypothesize that large coveys containing these non-immune birds could be important in focal virus amplification in rural settings. However, experimental infection studies with chicks, juveniles, and adults of both quail species using sympatric strains of WEEV, SLEV, and WNV indicated that only immature birds were competent hosts for WEEV, producing viremias sufficiently elevated to efficiently infect Culex tarsalis mosquitoes. Quail were less competent hosts for WNV and were incompetent for SLEV. Large populations of quail that frequently are infected with SLEV or WNV, but produce low to moderate viremias, may serve as dead end hosts for these viruses. Due to their abundance and repeated infection, these birds may attenuate virus amplification in rural areas of California and possibly could be one reason why WNV epidemics seem to occur more frequently in urban and periurban than in rural landscapes.

AB - Gambel's and California quail were infected repeatedly whenever western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), and (WNV) West Nile virus were active during summer in California. The timing of virus appearance and quail infection coincided well with the appearance of chicks in nature, leading us to hypothesize that large coveys containing these non-immune birds could be important in focal virus amplification in rural settings. However, experimental infection studies with chicks, juveniles, and adults of both quail species using sympatric strains of WEEV, SLEV, and WNV indicated that only immature birds were competent hosts for WEEV, producing viremias sufficiently elevated to efficiently infect Culex tarsalis mosquitoes. Quail were less competent hosts for WNV and were incompetent for SLEV. Large populations of quail that frequently are infected with SLEV or WNV, but produce low to moderate viremias, may serve as dead end hosts for these viruses. Due to their abundance and repeated infection, these birds may attenuate virus amplification in rural areas of California and possibly could be one reason why WNV epidemics seem to occur more frequently in urban and periurban than in rural landscapes.

KW - California

KW - California quail

KW - Gambel's quail

KW - St. Louis encephalitis virus

KW - West Nile virus

KW - Western equine encephalomyelitis virus

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33751236467&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33751236467&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1089/vbz.2006.6.248

DO - 10.1089/vbz.2006.6.248

M3 - Article

C2 - 16989564

AN - SCOPUS:33751236467

VL - 6

SP - 248

EP - 260

JO - Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

JF - Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

SN - 1530-3667

IS - 3

ER -