Objective: To assess the modern morbidity of hemoptysis and the contribution of therapeutic bronchial artery embolization to its management. Methods: Medical record review of patients admitted for the treatment of hemoptysis from January 1991 to November 1995 and of patients who had therapeutic bronchial artery embolization from June 1986 to August 1995. Hemoptysis was labeled major or minor. Results: A total of 138 patients were admitted with hemoptysis, 31 with major and 107 with minor hemoptysis. No emergency pulmonary resections were required. Mean follow-up was 13.5 months. Mortality was 29.7% (41/138) but was caused by bronchial bleeding in only 4.3% (6/138). Twenty-six patients underwent therapeutic bronchial artery embolization (mean follow-up [range], 14 months [0.3-69.0 months]). The initial success rate (no further bleeding during the initial admission) was 85% (22/26). The long-term success rate (no further bleeding during follow- up) was 58% (15/26). Only 2 patients with therapeutic bronchial artery embolization died of further hemoptysis. Conclusions: Hemoptysis signals life-threatening diseases. Therapeutic bronchial artery embolization is a good treatment adjunct to control bronchial bleeding and reduces the need for high-risk emergency lung resections.
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