When considering the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA), it is important to review the contribution of bone in addition to the contribution of cartilage and synovium. Although bone clearly plays a role in determining the distribution of biomechanical forces across joints, which in turn plays a role in the initiation of OA, it has also more recently been appreciated that bone may contribute in a biological sense to the pathogenesis of OA. Far from being a static structure, bone is a dynamic tissue undergoing constant remodeling, and it is clear from a number of radiographic and biochemical studies that bone and cartilage degradation occurs hand in hand. Whether the initial instigating event in OA occurs in cartilage or bone is not known, but it is clear that bony changes occur very early in the pathogenesis of OA and often predate radiographic appearance of the disease. This review focuses on the structural variants of both hip and knee that have been associated with OA and the ultrastructural bone changes in these sites occurring in early OA pathogenesis.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Osteoarthritis".
- Risk factors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism