Risk factors for rabid animal bites: A study in domestic ruminants in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh

Z. Noman, T. T. Anika, Z. F. Haque, A. K.M.A. Rahman, M. P. Ward, B. Martínez-López

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Rabies is endemic in Bangladesh. To identify risk factors, a case-control study was conducted based on hospital-reported rabid animal bite (RAB) cases in domestic ruminants, 2009?2018. RAB cases (n=449) and three controls per case were selected. Dogs (87.8%) and jackals (12.2%) were most often identified as the biting animals. In the final multivariable model, the risk of being a RAB case was significantly higher in cattle aged >0.5 to 2 years (OR 2.89; 95% CI: 1.56-5.37), >2 to 5 years (OR 3.63; 95% CI: 1.97-6.67) and >5 years (OR 6.42; 95% CI: 3.39- 12.17) compared to those aged <0.5 years. Crossbred cattle were at higher risk of being a RAB case (OR 5.48; 95% CI: 3.56-8.42) than indigenous. Similarly, female cattle were more likely to be a RAB case (OR 1.26; 95% CI: 1.15-2.29) than males. Cattle in rural areas (OR 39.48; 95% CI: 6.14-254.00) were at much higher risk of being RAB cases than those in urban areas. Female, crossbred and older cattle especially in rural areas should either be managed indoors during the dog breeding season (September?October) or vaccinated. A national rabies elimination program should prioritise rural dogs for mass vaccination. Jackals should also be immunized using oral bait vaccines. Prevention of rabies in rural dogs and jackals would also reduce rabies incidence in humans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalEpidemiology and Infection
StateAccepted/In press - 2021


  • cattle
  • dog
  • goats
  • humans
  • jackal
  • rabies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Infectious Diseases


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