Objective: To describe risk factors for as well as type and frequency of complications, time to occurrence of complications, and mortality after temporary tube cystostomy alone or in combination with other surgical procedures, in goats, sheep, and pigs. Study design: Retrospective case series. Animals: One hundred thirteen goats, eight sheep, and six pigs. Methods: Medical records of goats, sheep, and pigs that underwent temporary tube cystostomy alone or in combination with urethrotomy at the Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital, University of California-Davis from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2018 were reviewed. Signalment, presurgical and surgical procedures, urolith type and location, and postoperative complications and mortality were analyzed. In goats, logistic regression analysis was performed to determine association between the presence of complications or mortality as well as candidate predictor variables. Results: Postoperative complications were reported in 54.9% (62/113) of goats, 37.5% (3/8) of sheep, and 50% (3/6) of pigs. The most frequent type of complication was reobstruction. Median (range) time to first complication was 171 days (1-2247) for goats. In sheep and pigs, the range for time to re-presentation for complications was 11 to 37 and 17 to 1182 days, respectively. Proportions of nonsurvivors after tube cystostomy were 48.4% (30/62) goats, 1/8 sheep and 2/6 pigs. No association between examined predictor variables and the occurrence of complications or mortality was detected. Conclusion: The risk of complications and mortality after temporary tube cystostomy was high, especially in goats. Clinical significance: Owners should be made aware of the high complication rate after temporary tube cystostomy alone or in combination with other procedures. Investigation of alternative approaches to manage obstructive urolithiasis in goats, sheep, and pigs should be considered.
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