Importance: Complications that arise after treatment of mandible fractures can result in significant morbidity. Identifying modifiable risk factors associated with these complications is valuable in guiding clinical practice for improved patient outcomes. Objective: To describe the risk factors associated with complications in patients undergoing treatment for mandible fracture. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective review was conducted of 137 patients presenting to a tertiary care, level 1 trauma center with mandible fractures between January 1, 2014, and January 1, 2017. Outcomes and demographic characteristics for patients with at least 3 weeks of follow-up were compared using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Of the 137 patients meeting inclusion criteria, there were 113 males (82.5%) and 24 females (17.5%), with a mean (SD) age at presentation of 32.3 (15.7) years. Median follow-up was 71 days (range, 22-1189 days). Postoperative complications were identified in 29 patients (21.2%); complications included wound dehiscence or surgical site infection (n = 17), bony nonunion (n = 5), and hardware exposure (n = 13). Complications were managed surgically in 19 patients and nonsurgically in 10 patients. On univariate analysis, the initial surgery was completed later (mean [SD], 5.9 [6.6] days after injury) in patients who developed complications than in those who did not (mean [SD], 3.8 [4.0] days). On multivariate analysis, complications were associated with increased time from injury to treatment (odds ratio [OR], 1.60; 95% CI, 1.02-2.53; P =.04), tobacco use (OR, 8.10; 95% CI, 1.26-52.00; P =.03), and dental extraction (OR, 93.00; 95% CI, 1.19 to >999.00; P =.04). Residence in the same city as the medical center was associated with fewer complications (OR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.01-0.69; P =.02). Conclusions and Relevance: In a 3-year review of mandible fractures managed at a single academic center, complications were associated with an increased time to treatment, tobacco use, dental extraction, and living farther from the treatment facility. On a systems level, the results of this study suggest that expediting intervention for mandible fractures may improve outcomes. Level of Evidence: 3..
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