Treatment of primary prostate cancer (CaP) is the withdrawal of androgens. However, CaP eventually progresses to grow in a castration-resistant state due to aberrant activation of androgen receptor (AR). Understanding the mechanisms leading to the aberrant activation of AR is critical to develop effective therapy. We have previously identified Rho GDP Dissociation Inhibitor alpha (GDIα) as a novel suppressor in prostate cancer. In this study, we examine the effect of GDIα on AR signaling in prostate cancer cells. METHODS. GDIα was transiently or stably transfected into several prostate cancer cell lines including LNCaP, C4-2, CWR22Rv1, and DU145. The regulation of AR expression by GDIα was analyzed by qRT-PCR and Western blot. AR activity was measured by luciferase reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift analysis (EMSA). Immunofluorescence assay was performed to study AR nuclear translocation. The interaction between GDIα and AR was examined by co-immunoprecipitation assays. RESULTS. In this study, we have identified GDIα as a negative regulator of AR signaling pathway. Overexpression of GDIα downregulates AR expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Overexpression of GDIα is able to prevent AR nuclear translocation and inhibit transactivation of AR target genes. Co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that GDIα physically interacts with the N-terminal domain of AR. CONCLUSIONS. GDIα suppresses AR signaling through inhibition of AR expression, nuclear translocation, and recruitment to androgen-responsive genes. GDIα regulatory pathway may play a critical role in regulating AR signaling and prostate cancer growth and progression.
- prostate cancer
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