Revisiting the global problem of cryptosporidiosis and recommendations

Arpit Kumar Shrivastava, Subrat Kumar, Woutrina A Smith, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cryptosporidiosis is a gastrointestinal illness caused by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium species, which is a leading cause of diarrhea in a variety of vertebrate hosts. The primary mode of transmission is through oral routes; infections spread with the ingestion of oocysts by susceptible animals or humans. In humans, Cryptosporidium infections are commonly found in children and immunocompromised individuals. The small intestine is the most common primary site of infection in humans while extraintestinal cryptosporidiosis occurs in immunocompromised individuals affecting the biliary tract, lungs, or pancreas. Both innate and adaptive immune responses play a critical role in parasite clearance as evident from studies with experimental infection in mice. However, the cellular immune responses induced during human infections are poorly understood. In this article, we review the currently available information with regard to epidemiology, diagnosis, therapeutic interventions, and strategies being used to control cryptosporidiosis infection. Since cryptosporidiosis may spread through zoonotic mode, we emphasis on more epidemiological surveillance-based studies in developing countries with poor sanitation and hygiene. These epidemiological surveys must incorporate fecal source tracking measures to identify animal and human populations contributing significantly to the fecal burden in the community, as mitigation measures differ by host type.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8-17
Number of pages10
JournalTropical Parasitology
Volume7
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

Fingerprint

Cryptosporidiosis
Infection
Cryptosporidium
Parasites
Sanitation
Oocysts
Zoonoses
Biliary Tract
Adaptive Immunity
Infection Control
Hygiene
Innate Immunity
Cellular Immunity
Developing Countries
Small Intestine
Vertebrates
Pancreas
Diarrhea
Epidemiology
Eating

Keywords

  • Cryptosporidiosis
  • Cryptosporidium
  • diarrhea
  • microbial source tracking
  • zoonotic diseases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Microbiology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Revisiting the global problem of cryptosporidiosis and recommendations. / Shrivastava, Arpit Kumar; Kumar, Subrat; Smith, Woutrina A; Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan.

In: Tropical Parasitology, Vol. 7, No. 1, 01.01.2017, p. 8-17.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shrivastava, Arpit Kumar ; Kumar, Subrat ; Smith, Woutrina A ; Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan. / Revisiting the global problem of cryptosporidiosis and recommendations. In: Tropical Parasitology. 2017 ; Vol. 7, No. 1. pp. 8-17.
@article{50a12890fef54871bc3bf30314ea79c7,
title = "Revisiting the global problem of cryptosporidiosis and recommendations",
abstract = "Cryptosporidiosis is a gastrointestinal illness caused by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium species, which is a leading cause of diarrhea in a variety of vertebrate hosts. The primary mode of transmission is through oral routes; infections spread with the ingestion of oocysts by susceptible animals or humans. In humans, Cryptosporidium infections are commonly found in children and immunocompromised individuals. The small intestine is the most common primary site of infection in humans while extraintestinal cryptosporidiosis occurs in immunocompromised individuals affecting the biliary tract, lungs, or pancreas. Both innate and adaptive immune responses play a critical role in parasite clearance as evident from studies with experimental infection in mice. However, the cellular immune responses induced during human infections are poorly understood. In this article, we review the currently available information with regard to epidemiology, diagnosis, therapeutic interventions, and strategies being used to control cryptosporidiosis infection. Since cryptosporidiosis may spread through zoonotic mode, we emphasis on more epidemiological surveillance-based studies in developing countries with poor sanitation and hygiene. These epidemiological surveys must incorporate fecal source tracking measures to identify animal and human populations contributing significantly to the fecal burden in the community, as mitigation measures differ by host type.",
keywords = "Cryptosporidiosis, Cryptosporidium, diarrhea, microbial source tracking, zoonotic diseases",
author = "Shrivastava, {Arpit Kumar} and Subrat Kumar and Smith, {Woutrina A} and Sahu, {Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan}",
year = "2017",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.4103/2229-5070.202290",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "7",
pages = "8--17",
journal = "Tropical Parasitology",
issn = "2229-5070",
publisher = "Medknow Publications and Media Pvt. Ltd",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Revisiting the global problem of cryptosporidiosis and recommendations

AU - Shrivastava, Arpit Kumar

AU - Kumar, Subrat

AU - Smith, Woutrina A

AU - Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan

PY - 2017/1/1

Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - Cryptosporidiosis is a gastrointestinal illness caused by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium species, which is a leading cause of diarrhea in a variety of vertebrate hosts. The primary mode of transmission is through oral routes; infections spread with the ingestion of oocysts by susceptible animals or humans. In humans, Cryptosporidium infections are commonly found in children and immunocompromised individuals. The small intestine is the most common primary site of infection in humans while extraintestinal cryptosporidiosis occurs in immunocompromised individuals affecting the biliary tract, lungs, or pancreas. Both innate and adaptive immune responses play a critical role in parasite clearance as evident from studies with experimental infection in mice. However, the cellular immune responses induced during human infections are poorly understood. In this article, we review the currently available information with regard to epidemiology, diagnosis, therapeutic interventions, and strategies being used to control cryptosporidiosis infection. Since cryptosporidiosis may spread through zoonotic mode, we emphasis on more epidemiological surveillance-based studies in developing countries with poor sanitation and hygiene. These epidemiological surveys must incorporate fecal source tracking measures to identify animal and human populations contributing significantly to the fecal burden in the community, as mitigation measures differ by host type.

AB - Cryptosporidiosis is a gastrointestinal illness caused by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium species, which is a leading cause of diarrhea in a variety of vertebrate hosts. The primary mode of transmission is through oral routes; infections spread with the ingestion of oocysts by susceptible animals or humans. In humans, Cryptosporidium infections are commonly found in children and immunocompromised individuals. The small intestine is the most common primary site of infection in humans while extraintestinal cryptosporidiosis occurs in immunocompromised individuals affecting the biliary tract, lungs, or pancreas. Both innate and adaptive immune responses play a critical role in parasite clearance as evident from studies with experimental infection in mice. However, the cellular immune responses induced during human infections are poorly understood. In this article, we review the currently available information with regard to epidemiology, diagnosis, therapeutic interventions, and strategies being used to control cryptosporidiosis infection. Since cryptosporidiosis may spread through zoonotic mode, we emphasis on more epidemiological surveillance-based studies in developing countries with poor sanitation and hygiene. These epidemiological surveys must incorporate fecal source tracking measures to identify animal and human populations contributing significantly to the fecal burden in the community, as mitigation measures differ by host type.

KW - Cryptosporidiosis

KW - Cryptosporidium

KW - diarrhea

KW - microbial source tracking

KW - zoonotic diseases

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85016440276&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85016440276&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.4103/2229-5070.202290

DO - 10.4103/2229-5070.202290

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85016440276

VL - 7

SP - 8

EP - 17

JO - Tropical Parasitology

JF - Tropical Parasitology

SN - 2229-5070

IS - 1

ER -