Retrospective evaluation of the prognostic utility of plasma lactate concentration and serial lactate measurements in dogs and cats presented to the emergency room (January 2012 – December 2016): 4863 cases

Laurence M. Saint-Pierre, Kate Hopper, Steven E. Epstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: To determine the prognostic significance of plasma lactate concentration, plasma lactate clearance, and delta lactate in dogs and cats presented to an emergency room (ER). Design: Retrospective study. Setting: University teaching hospital. Animals: A total of 8,321 animals with a plasma lactate concentration measured with 4,863 presenting to the ER and 1,529 dogs and 444 cats having a measurement within 4 hours of admission. Interventions: None. Measurements and main results: Plasma lactate concentration of dogs and cats presented to a university teaching hospital was retrospectively evaluated. Of dogs and cats with a plasma lactate concentration measured within 4 hours of admission to the ER, hyperlactatemia was common, and the prevalence of hyperlactatemia for dogs 78% (361/462) and cats 67% (78/116) was highest when evaluated within the first 30 minutes following admission. The distribution of patient's plasma lactate concentration was significantly higher in non-survivors compared to survivors at all time points evaluated (P (Formula presented.) 0.001). Both lactate clearance (P = 0.010) and delta lactate (P = 0.013) were significantly different between survivors and nonsurvivors. A delta lactate > 4.5 mmol/L was 100% (95% CI: 95 to 100%) specific for nonsurvival in patients with hyperlactatemia measured within 1 hour of admission to the ER. The most common cause of hyperlactatemia was shock in dogs (24%) and urinary tract diseases in cats (22%). Shock was associated with the highest mortality rate in both dogs (61%) and cats (77%). Hyperlactatemia was significantly associated with increased mortality for dogs with shock (P = 0.001), respiratory diseases (P = 0.022), diabetes mellitus (P = 0.018), and liver dysfunction (P = 0.006). Conclusions: Hyperlactatemia was associated with mortality in both dogs and cats when measured at any time point in the 4 hours following admission to the ER. Serial lactate measurement may also be a valuable tool to guide clinical management decisions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • hyperlactatemia
  • lactate clearance
  • mortality
  • shock

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

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