BACKGROUND Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is recommended in adults with a noncompressible torso hemorrhage with occlusion times of less than 60 minutes. The tolerable duration in children is unknown. We used a pediatric swine controlled hemorrhage model to evaluate the physiologic effects of 30 minutes and 60 minutes of REBOA. METHODS Pediatric swine weighing 20 kg to 30 kg underwent a splenectomy and a controlled 60% total blood volume hemorrhage over 30 minutes, followed by either zone 1 REBOA for 30 minutes (30R) or 60 minutes (60R). Swine were then resuscitated with shed blood and received critical care for 240 minutes. RESULTS During critical care, the 30R group's (n = 3) pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate were no different than baseline, while at the end of critical care, these variables continued to differ from baseline in the 60R group (n = 5) and were worsening (7.4 vs. 7.2, p < 0.001, 30.4 mmol/L vs. 18.4 mmol/L, p < 0.0001, 5.6 mmol/L vs. -8.5 mmol/L, p < 0.0001, 2.4 mmol/L vs. 5.7 mmol/L, p < 0.001, respectively). Compared with baseline, end creatinine and creatinine kinase were elevated in 60R swine (1.0 mg/dL vs. 1.7 mg/dL, p < 0.01 and 335.4 U/L vs. 961.0 U/L, p < 0.001, respectively), but not 30R swine (0.9 mg/dL vs. 1.2 mg/dL, p = 0.06 and 423.7 U/L vs. 769.5 U/L, p = 0.15, respectively). There was no difference in survival time between the 30R and 60R pediatric swine, p = 0.99. CONCLUSION The physiologic effects of 30 minutes of zone 1 REBOA in pediatric swine mostly resolved during the subsequent 4 hours of critical care, whereas the effects of 60 minutes of REBOA persisted and worsened after 4 hours of critical care. Sixty minutes of zone 1 REBOA may create an irreversible physiologic insult in a pediatric population.
- pediatric REBOA
- pediatric trauma
- REBOA physiology
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine