Rationale and Objectives: A novel ventilation imaging method based on four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) has been applied to the field of radiation oncology. Understanding its reproducibility is a prerequisite for clinical applications. The purpose of this study was to quantify the reproducibility of 4D CT ventilation imaging over different days and the same session. Materials and Methods: Two ventilation images were created from repeat 4D CT scans acquired over the average time frames of 15 days for 6 lung cancer patients and 5 minutes for another 6 patients. The reproducibility was quantified using the voxel-based Spearman rank correlation coefficients for all lung voxels and Dice similarity coefficients (DSC) for the spatial overlap of segmented high-, moderate-, and low-functional lung volumes. Furthermore, the relationship between the variation in abdominal motion range as a measure of the depth of breathing and variation in ventilation was evaluated using linear regression. Results: The voxel-based correlation between the two ventilation images was moderate on average (0.50 ± 0.15). The DSCs were also moderate for the high- (0.60 ± 0.08), moderate- (0.46 ± 0.06), and low-functional lung (0.58 ± 0.09). No patients demonstrated strong correlations. The relationship between the motion range variation and ventilation variation was found to be moderate and significant. Conclusions: We investigated the reproducibility of 4D CT ventilation imaging over the time frames of 15 days and 5 minutes and found that it was only moderately reproducible. Respiratory variation during 4D CT scans was found to deteriorate the reproducibility. Improvement of 4D CT imaging is necessary to increase the reproducibility of 4D CT ventilation imaging.
- Deformable image registration
- Four-dimensional (4D) CT
- Functional imaging
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging