Regulation of NAD+ metabolism, signaling and compartmentalization in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Michiko Kato, Su Ju Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Scopus citations

Abstract

Pyridine nucleotides are essential coenzymes in many cellular redox reactions in all living systems. In addition to functioning as a redox carrier, NAD+ is also a required co-substrate for the conserved sirtuin deacetylases. Sirtuins regulate transcription, genome maintenance and metabolism and function as molecular links between cells and their environment. Maintaining NAD+ homeostasis is essential for proper cellular function and aberrant NAD+ metabolism has been implicated in a number of metabolic- and age-associated diseases. Recently, NAD+ metabolism has been linked to the phosphate-responsive signaling pathway (PHO pathway) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Activation of the PHO pathway is associated with the production and mobilization of the NAD+ metabolite nicotinamide riboside (NR), which is mediated in part by PHO-regulated nucleotidases. Cross-regulation between NAD+ metabolism and the PHO pathway has also been reported; however, detailed mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The PHO pathway also appears to modulate the activities of common downstream effectors of multiple nutrient-sensing pathways (Ras-PKA, TOR, Sch9/AKT). These signaling pathways were suggested to play a role in calorie restriction-mediated beneficial effects, which have also been linked to Sir2 function and NAD+ metabolism. Here, we discuss the interactions of these pathways and their potential roles in regulating NAD+ metabolism. In eukaryotic cells, intracellular compartmentalization facilitates the regulation of enzymatic functions and also concentrates or sequesters specific metabolites. Various NAD+-mediated cellular functions such as mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are compartmentalized. Therefore, we also discuss several key players functioning in mitochondrial, cytosolic and vacuolar compartmentalization of NAD+ intermediates, and their potential roles in NAD+ homeostasis. To date, it remains unclear how NAD+ and NAD+ intermediates shuttle between different cellular compartments. Together, these studies provide a molecular basis for how NAD+ homeostasis factors and the interacting signaling pathways confer metabolic flexibility and contribute to maintaining cell fitness and genome stability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)49-58
Number of pages10
JournalDNA Repair
Volume23
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2014

Keywords

  • NAD homeostasis
  • NAD metabolism
  • NAD signaling
  • Nicotinamide riboside
  • Yeasts

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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