Objective: To describe a surgical technique using a regenerative approach and internal fixation for reconstruction of critical size bone defect non-union mandibular fractures. Study Design: Case series. Animals: Dogs (n=6) that had internal fixation of defect non-union mandibular fracture. Methods: In 5 dogs, the repair was staged and extraction of teeth performed during the initial procedure. After 21-98 days (mean, 27 days) pharyngotomy intubation and temporary maxillomandibular fixation were performed. Using an extraoral approach, a locking titanium miniplate was contoured and secured to the mandible. A compression resistant matrix (CRM) infused with rhBMP-2 was implanted in the defect. The implant was then covered with a soft tissue envelope followed by surgical wound closure. Results: All dogs healed with intact gingival covering over the mandibular fracture site defect and had immediate return to normal function and correct occlusion. Hard-tissue formation was observed clinically within 2 weeks and solid cortical bone formation within 3 months. CT findings in 1 dog at 3 months postoperatively demonstrated that the newly regenerated mandibular bone had 92% of the bone density and porosity compared to the contralateral side. Long-term follow-up revealed excellent outcome. Conclusion: Mandibular reconstruction using internal fixation and CRM infused with rhBMP-2 is an excellent solution for the treatment of critical size defect non-union fractures in dogs.
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