Patients with pathologic hip fractures or impending pathologic proximal femur fractures are at a high risk for developing bone cement implantation syndrome during cemented femoral arthroplasty. Comorbid conditions of patients who sustain these fractures, including cardiopulmonary compromise and permeable, highly vascular bone related to metastatic disease, put them at risk for sudden death. Reducing intraoperative intramedullary pressure, a modifiable intraoperative intervention, may decrease this risk. The goals of this study were to determine the pressure generated by low- and high-viscosity cement during femoral implantation and the pullout strength of the bone-cement-implant interface. Ten pairs of cadaveric femurs were divided into 2 groups: those receiving low-viscosity cement and those receiving high-viscosity cement during femoral arthroplasty. Pressure was recorded with sensors implanted in the lateral femoral cortex at proximal, middle, and distal implant positions in both groups during cement insertion and prosthesis implantation. Each construct underwent pullout failure testing after thorough cement curing. Significantly higher pressures were generated with high-viscosity cement for implant fixation, whereas the pullout force to failure was similar between groups. Low-viscosity cementation may be used to reduce the risk of bone cement implantation syndrome in high-risk patients with pathologic hip fractures or impending pathologic proximal femur fractures. The proposed mechanism of risk reduction is through lower intramedullary pressure with no bone-cement-implant interface pullout strength reduction. Further clinical trials are needed to prove this biomechanical effect.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine