Reduced MHC and neutral variation in the Galpagos hawk, an island endemic

Jennifer L. Bollmer, Joshua M. Hull, Holly B Ernest, José H. Sarasola, Patricia G. Parker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Genes at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are known for high levels of polymorphism maintained by balancing selection. In small or bottlenecked populations, however, genetic drift may be strong enough to overwhelm the effect of balancing selection, resulting in reduced MHC variability. In this study we investigated MHC evolution in two recently diverged bird species: the endemic Galpagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis), which occurs in small, isolated island populations, and its widespread mainland relative, the Swainson's hawk (B. swainsoni). Results: We amplified at least two MHC class II B gene copies in each species. We recovered only three different sequences from 32 Galpagos hawks, while we amplified 20 unique sequences in 20 Swainson's hawks. Most of the sequences clustered into two groups in a phylogenetic network, with one group likely representing pseudogenes or nonclassical loci. Neutral genetic diversity at 17 microsatellite loci was also reduced in the Galpagos hawk compared to the Swainson's hawk. Conclusions: The corresponding loss in neutral diversity suggests that the reduced variability present at Galpagos hawk MHC class II B genes compared to the Swainson's hawk is primarily due to a founder event followed by ongoing genetic drift in small populations. However, purifying selection could also explain the low number of MHC alleles present. This lack of variation at genes involved in the adaptive immune response could be cause for concern should novel diseases reach the archipelago.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number143
JournalBMC Evolutionary Biology
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2011

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major histocompatibility complex
hawks
gene
genetic drift
genes
immune response
Buteo
population genetics
loci
archipelago
pseudogenes
allele
polymorphism
phylogenetics
indigenous species
genetic polymorphism
microsatellite repeats
alleles
genetic variation
birds

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Cite this

Reduced MHC and neutral variation in the Galpagos hawk, an island endemic. / Bollmer, Jennifer L.; Hull, Joshua M.; Ernest, Holly B; Sarasola, José H.; Parker, Patricia G.

In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 11, No. 1, 143, 2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bollmer, Jennifer L. ; Hull, Joshua M. ; Ernest, Holly B ; Sarasola, José H. ; Parker, Patricia G. / Reduced MHC and neutral variation in the Galpagos hawk, an island endemic. In: BMC Evolutionary Biology. 2011 ; Vol. 11, No. 1.
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