Recoil measurement, mitigation techniques, and effects on small arms weapon design and marksmanship performance

Frank Morelli, Jennifer M. Neugebauer, Michael E. LaFiandra, Patricia Burcham, Caleb T. Gordon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


A methodology to determine the interactive effects of weapon recoil, for both the weapon and the shooter in synchrony during shoulder-fired small arms target engagement scenarios, is yet to be established with widespread applications. Recoil energy can be measured using devices such as instrumented weapon mounts, or calculated from factors such as weapon weight, center of mass, projectile mass, and muzzle velocity. However, the effect of recoil on the shooter will affect shooting performance. Perceived recoil may be defined as a mental representation of the impact intensity experienced by the shooter, a subjective estimation that encompasses pain, discomfort, propensity to flinch, and other factors. Methods to quantify and mitigate the recoil energy experienced by the shooter, as well as proposed concepts for improved recording of the interaction between the physical and psychological correlates of recoil as it relates to small arms shoulder-fired weapon use are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6736088
Pages (from-to)422-428
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Accelerometers
  • anthropometry
  • force measurement
  • human factors
  • interactive systems
  • motion measurement
  • test equipment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Signal Processing
  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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