Reaching 200-ps timing resolution in a time-of-flight and depth-of-interaction positron emission tomography detector using phosphor-coated crystals and high-density silicon photomultipliers

Sun Il Kwon, Alessandro Ferri, Alberto Gola, Eric Berg, Claudio Piemonte, Simon R Cherry, Emilie Roncali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Current research in the field of positron emission tomography (PET) focuses on improving the sensitivity of the scanner with thicker detectors, extended axial field-of-view, and time-of-flight (TOF) capability. These create the need for depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding to correct parallax errors. We have proposed a method to encode DOI using phosphor-coated crystals. Our initial work using photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) demonstrated the possibilities of the proposed method, however, a major limitation of PMTs for this application is poor quantum efficiency in yellow light, corresponding to the wavelengths of the converted light by the phosphor coating. In contrast, the red-green-blue-high-density (RGB-HD) silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have a high photon detection efficiency across the visible spectrum. Excellent coincidence resolving time (CRT; <210ps) was obtained by coupling RGB-HD SiPMs and 3 × 3 × 20mm3 lutetium fine silicate crystals coated on a third of one of their lateral sides. Events were classified in three DOI bins (∼6.7-mm width) with an average sensitivity of 83.1%. A CRT of ∼200ps combined with robust DOI encoding is a marked improvement in the phosphor-coated approach that we pioneered. For the first time, we read out these crystals with SiPMs and clearly demonstrated the potential of the RGB-HD SiPMs for this TOF-DOI PET detector.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number043501
JournalJournal of Medical Imaging
Volume3
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016

Fingerprint

Positron emission tomography
Photomultipliers
Silicon
Positron-Emission Tomography
Phosphors
Detectors
Crystals
Lutetium
Cathode ray tubes
Light
Silicates
Photons
Bins
Quantum efficiency
Research
Coatings
Wavelength

Keywords

  • coincidence timing resolution
  • depth-of-interaction
  • phosphor coating
  • positron emission tomography
  • silicon photomultiplier
  • time-of-flight

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this

Reaching 200-ps timing resolution in a time-of-flight and depth-of-interaction positron emission tomography detector using phosphor-coated crystals and high-density silicon photomultipliers. / Kwon, Sun Il; Ferri, Alessandro; Gola, Alberto; Berg, Eric; Piemonte, Claudio; Cherry, Simon R; Roncali, Emilie.

In: Journal of Medical Imaging, Vol. 3, No. 4, 043501, 01.10.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Current research in the field of positron emission tomography (PET) focuses on improving the sensitivity of the scanner with thicker detectors, extended axial field-of-view, and time-of-flight (TOF) capability. These create the need for depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding to correct parallax errors. We have proposed a method to encode DOI using phosphor-coated crystals. Our initial work using photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) demonstrated the possibilities of the proposed method, however, a major limitation of PMTs for this application is poor quantum efficiency in yellow light, corresponding to the wavelengths of the converted light by the phosphor coating. In contrast, the red-green-blue-high-density (RGB-HD) silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have a high photon detection efficiency across the visible spectrum. Excellent coincidence resolving time (CRT; <210ps) was obtained by coupling RGB-HD SiPMs and 3 × 3 × 20mm3 lutetium fine silicate crystals coated on a third of one of their lateral sides. Events were classified in three DOI bins (∼6.7-mm width) with an average sensitivity of 83.1{\%}. A CRT of ∼200ps combined with robust DOI encoding is a marked improvement in the phosphor-coated approach that we pioneered. For the first time, we read out these crystals with SiPMs and clearly demonstrated the potential of the RGB-HD SiPMs for this TOF-DOI PET detector.",
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